The study compared anthropometric methods among individuals from industrialized countries and developing countries. It assessed body size in terms of weight, height, and waist girth. It attempted to determine trends in body fat distribution among the two groups from Industrialized and developing countries. It undertook tests on lipid profiles guided by increasing risk to blood pressure. It assessed nutritional implications by gender and socio-economic groups. An increase in body fat over time was associated with decreased physical activity and fitness.
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On the other hand, an examination of waist cycling is associated with cardiovascular risk than muscle gain. The investigation has used standardized anthropometric methods to provide data on how physical size and structure were connected to the risk of developing coronary heart disease and hypertension diseases. Commonly used standard measurements methods focus on indices connecting to risks of coronary heart disease or systemic arterial hypertension (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 74-128).
- Weight: encompasses total height, frame size, muscle proportions, fat, and bone without shoes (Ebomoyi, Wickremansighe, and Cherry, 33-38).
- Height: includes individuals’ sum of four components (legs, pelvis, spine, and skull) (Lohman et al.).
- BMI: is the relative weight measured in weight/height squared and has become widely used to assess underweight, overweight, and acceptable weight (Lohman et al).
- Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR): The fat around the waist indicates intra-abdominal fat deposits in an index of risk for cardiovascular disease (Hill et all.; Birmingham and all).
- Muscle: mid-muscle arm circumference, mid-arm circumference, and triceps skin hold of an individual (Lohman).
Materials and Methods
Methods used in the study have been internationally proven for better and more reliable results. Height and weight are internationally accepted as primary body size indices. BMI has been used to correlate with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Waist girth targeting the central and upper body has been associated with obesity (Wang, 47). Other methods such as Muscle mass Circumference (MAMC), Muscle arm circumference (MAC), and Triceps skin fold have been associated with diabetes and heart diseases. The methods have been utilized in this study.
Classification of Weight using BMIa
Table 1.1: The tables build illustrate methods used in the anthropometric exercise.
|Descriptive Item||BMI (Kg/M2)|
|Underweight||less than 20|
|acceptable weight||20-25 inclusive greater than 25|
|Overweight||Greater than 25 and up to 30|
Table 1.2: Reference levels for triceps skin-fold, adults, sexes separate
|Triceps||Skin fold (mm)|
Comparisons between two populations in developed and developing countries indicated the following results
Female comparison and contrast
Female BMI from industrialized countries averaged at 22 for those aged 19-24 and 21 for those aged 25-44. Those aged 19-24 and 24-44 had BMI index (22), (21) within acceptable weight respectively. The triceps skinfold (TSF) for this category of women was low (1.5 & 1.7) for both 19-24 and 25-44 age categories respectively. The height for this category of women averaged 1.67 for those aged 19-24 and 25-44. Their weight averaged at 60.9 kg for those aged 19-24 and 57.9 for those aged 25-44. Hip circumference for 19-24 was 97 and 95.9 for those aged 25-44. The waist hip ratio was 0.74 for 19-24 categories and 0.72 for the 25-44 categories. Mid arm muscle circumference was 20 for 19-24 was 19.9 and 22.9 for 25-44 age categories. The mid-arm circumference was 27.3 for 19-24 and 27.9 for 25-44 age categories.
Females from developing countries aged 19-24 had BMI index of 20.9 and 20 for those aged 25-44. The BMI indices indicated both age groups were within acceptable weight. Their triceps skinfold (TSF) was low. 19-24 had low (TSF) at 1.8 while 24-44 1.7. The height for this category averaged at 1.62 for the two age categories. For those in developing countries, their weight averaged at 54.5 kg for those aged 19-24 and 52.6 kg for those aged 25-44. Hip circumference was 93.6 and 94.8 for those aged 24-44. The waist hip ratio was 0.74 for 19-24 categories and 0.73 for the 25-44 category.mid arm muscle circumference was 20 for 19-24 and 19.6 for 25-44 age categories. The mid-arm circumference was 25.7 for 19-24 and 24.9 for 25-44 age categories.
Male comparison and contrast
Male BMI from industrialized countries averaged at 24 for those aged 19-24 and 32 for those aged 25-44. Those aged 19-24 who had BMI index (24) were within acceptable weight while those aged 25-44 had an overweight BMI index (32). The triceps skinfold (TSF) for this category of men was low at (0.9) for both 19-24 and 25-44(1.73) categories. The height for this category of men averaged at 1.76 for 19-24 and 1.71 for 25-44 age groups. Their weight averaged 75 kg for those aged 19-24 and 100 for those aged 25-44. Hip circumference for 19-24 was 97.7 and 110 for those aged 25-44. The waist hip ratio was 0.82 for 19-24 categories and 0.88 for the 25-44 categories. Mid arm muscle circumference was for 19-24 was 29 and 30.1 for 25-44 age categories. The mid-arm circumference was 32 for 19-24 and 35.6 for 25-44 age categories.
For males in developing countries, BMI averaged at 22 for those aged 19-24 and 26 for those aged 25-44. Those aged 19-24 had a BMI index (22) within acceptable weight while those aged 25-44 had a BMI index (26) were overweight. The triceps skinfold (TSF) for this category of men was low for both 19-24(1.7) and 25-44 (1.73). The height for this category of men averaged at 1.77 for 19-24 and 1.71 for 25-44 age groups. Their weight averaged 69 kg for those aged 19-24 and 76kg for those aged 25-44. Hip circumference for 19-24 was 89 and 103.6 for those aged 25-44. The waist hip ratio was 0.83 for 19-24 categories and 0.88 for the 25-44 categories. Mid arm muscle circumference for 19-24 was 25.2 and 25.6 for 25-44 age categories. The mid-arm circumference was 29.5 for 19-24 and 30.9 for 25-44 age categories.
Table 1.3: Average Body Mass Indexes (BMI) of women and Men by age and sex classified as underweight, acceptable weight and overweight from both industrialized and developing countries.
|Age||Upbringing||Height||Weight||BMI||MAC||TSF||MAMC||Waist circum.||Hip circum||W/H|
|MAC = |
mid arm circumference
|TSF = Triceps skin fold||W/H= Waist to Hip Ratio||BMI=Body Mass Index||Upbringing |
According to Jellffe (1989), BMI showing underweight, acceptable weight, and overweight could be based on a standardized index scale. BMI less than 20 indicated being underweight, a weight within 20- 25 BMI indicated acceptable weight while greater than 25 up to 30 indicated overweight. Obesity was measured by over 30 BMI. From this investigation, the two categories of groups of males and females from industrialized and developing countries indicated noticeable trends.
Males and females from industrialized countries had BMI as follows; 19-24 (24, 22), 24-34 (32, 21) respectively. This showed that those aged 19-24 from both categories of males and females were within normal acceptable weight. However, men aged 24-34, were or were susceptible to being overweight. The females aged 25-34 (22 BMI) had their BMI within the standard and acceptable scale (National Center for Health Statistics 60).
For males and females from the developing world, males aged 19-24 (26 BMI) were slightly overweight, while females in the same age category were within acceptable weight. Those males aged 25-34 (BMI 22) and females (BMI 20) were both within the acceptable weight according to standard scales. The emerging trend shows that males aged 25-34 in industrialized countries were likely to turn on overweight as compared to those from developing countries. Other age categories were normal in both situations.
According to surveys done in the U.S arm circumference levels for normal individual males and females ranged as follows; 19-24 (MAC:30.8, 26.5), 25-34 (MAC: 31.9,27.7) respectively (NHS, 1970). From the survey findings, males from industrialized countries had a muscle arm circumference (MAC) of 32 and 35.6 for 19-24 and 25-34 age groups respectively. Females had muscle arm circumference (MAC) of 27.3 and 27.9 respectively (National Center for Health Statistics 62). This indicates that both males and females from industrialized countries had access to enough proteins. It also showed that muscles were overdeveloped, going by the standards in the national survey scales, which indicated a lack of physical activities (Gay, 189).
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For individuals from developing countries, MAC for males and females were as follows: those males aged 19-24, and 25-34, (29.5, 30.9). Females aged 19-24 and 25-34 had MAC of (27.3, 27.9) respectively. According to laid scale standards, males in such categories should fall within 30.8 and 31.9, and for females, it should fall within 26.5 and 27.7. According to findings, it shows that women and men from developing countries were within the normal muscle arm circumference ratios and that they were more involved in physical fitness than their industrialized counterparts.
The data also indicates that Waist to Hip Ratio (W/H R) could be applied to the two categories of groups. According to Lohman, (1988), fat distribution around the waist and abdominal fat deposits were important indexes for diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Normal fat distribution with upper cut-off was standardized at 0.8:1 for females and 0.90:1 for males. From the emerging findings, it was noticeable that men and women from industrialized had (W/H) ratio as follows; 19-24 and 25-34 (W/H: 0.74:1, 0.82:1for 19-24, 0.72:1, 0.82:1 for 25-34) respectively. Those from developing countries had (W/H: 0.72:1, 0.88:1 for 19-24 and 0.73:1, 0.85:1 for 25-34) respectively.
Anthropometric Data for Author, Student aged 40 years
The student had a BMI of 34. The MAC measured 32 while the weight in kilograms was 82.4 kgs. The height was 1.68 ft while the hip circumference was 98. The student originated from industrialized countries.
It is important to focus on weight and height monitoring embedded in the aging process for growth and development. It becomes easier to understand dietary and exercise patterns. Height and weight have implications for health problems, therefore, monitoring increases consciousness on the need for healthy activities (Jelliffe and Jelliffe). The waist girth if understood may guide understanding of subcutaneous fat distribution. Studies have shown that waist circumference is correlated with visceral fat, 0.44 for black men and women and 0.66 for white men and women (Ebomoyi, Wickremansighe, and Cherry, 33-38).
Fat distribution around the waist and abdomen was an important index for diabetes or heart-related diseases. Going by set standards, normal fat distribution with upper cut-off was 0.85:1 for females and 0.90:1 for males. From the foregoing data, the student had 0.96:1 (Wang 49). The student was likely to be prone to diabetes and heart diseases. Besides, his BMI was 34, above normal scales, and was classified as overweight.
Table 1.4: Anthropometric Data for Author, Student aged 40 years.
|Anthropometric Data for Author, Student aged 40 years|
Table 1.5: Obesity Standards.
|Minimum triceps skin fold thickness indicating obesity (mm)|
Table 1.6: Reference levels for arm circumference, adults, sexes separate and ages 18-54.
|Reference levels for arm circumference, adults, sexes separate and ages 18-54|
Obesity standards according to Jelliffe (1989) had been set by practitioners in America. The student was aged 40 years. The student was male and had a minimum triceps skin fold of (MAMC: 31.5) and (MAC: 32). The triceps skin fold measurements depicted by MAMC and MAC showed that the student had MAMC of 31.5 and MAC of 32. The waist was 98 cm. Besides, waist to hip ratio was 0.96. The hip circumference was 107 cm.
The student’s skin fold measurements indicated that the arm circumference thickness was beyond normal. He had MAMC of 31.5 and MAC of 32. Fat distribution indicated that the student experienced over nutrition. The student was in danger of turning obese. There was a likelihood of hypertension due to over nutrition of forms of protein energy. The muscle mass showed that the student was physically inactive and could lead a physically strenuous life. The waist girth indicated that the student had a hip circumference of 107 and hip waist ratio of 0.96. Adipose and subcutaneous fat distribution around the waist was more prone for heart related diseases.
Limitations of Anthropometric Methods used
Universal methods used to check body size in relation to health implications have been criticized by various scholars. Body fat derived from TSF scales has been unreliable in predicting abnormal fat distribution in obese children. The skin fold measures have been noted to be inaccurate by +6 or -6 error chance BMI scale over-concentrates on height and weight limiting its ability to accurately determine fat mass. Besides, current scales on height and weight do not show obesity on individual basis making it hard to predict individualized health risks (Wang 50).
Student, males and females anthropometric comparison
A common pattern emerged among students and males from industrialized countries. The BMI was slightly higher than normal scales. A common pattern was evident among males from developing countries where 19-24 were had normal BMI. The 25-44 age categories from industrialized countries were abnormal in BMI, WHR, and MAC.
The study concludes that the two groups were healthy. A smaller percentage of males from the industrialized countries were overweight or likely to turn overweight. Obesity-associated with insulin resistance, intra-abdominal adipose tissue among the studied groups showed that there were low risks for cardiovascular disease (Gay, 189). The correlation of W/H ratio to cardiovascular disease among the groups was minimal (Hill, et. all 381-7).
Furthermore, an examination of the student showed that the student was in danger of potential cardiovascular diseases. Triceps skinfold circumference was above normal measurements. The student resided in industrialized countries and was more likely to turn obese. The correlation between obesity and cardiovascular diseases was real. The findings substantiated other findings from industrialized countries where physical fitness for men and women was poor.
An emerging trend indicated that males and females from industrialized countries were more likely to suffer from hypertension, stroke, and obesity than those from developing countries. It implied that those males and females from developing countries were more active physical and took nutritional food with low-fat content. The trends in heart-related diseases among the two groups observed in the study corroborated scientific findings that show that the frequency of heart diseases was more common among industrialized countries than developing countries.
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