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A carcinoma in situ is a type of tumor that may develop in cancer. Management options for this condition include watchful waiting and surgical removal of a carcinoma. This paper debates the advantages and disadvantages of these measures, discussing each of them in detail and supporting the argument with scientific data. The report suggests the most beneficial solution for a patient and provides rationales for it.
Managing Carcinoma in Situ
A carcinoma in situ is defined as a malignant epithelial tumor that has not invaded the stroma or broken through the basement membrane (Huether & McCance, 2016). This type of tumor is a pre-invasive one and is presented by a group of abnormal cells, it can be considered pre-cancer. Treatment options for this case include watchful waiting and surgery with or without radiation (Merrill, Esserman & Morrow, 2016). It is vital to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each of the methods.
Watchful waiting has many benefits for a patient as, first, it does not involve operative interventions and does not interrupt the individual’s life significantly. A person can continue working and performing their regular tasks after every screening procedure. Second, carcinoma in situ is not an emergency case that requires immediate treatment as there are no malignant cells in the surrounding tissue. Moreover, the development of technologies allows for regular monitoring of the condition. A patient can be sure that in case carcinoma becomes invasive, necessary measures will be performed timely. Finally, surgical intervention may be more life-threatening than the tumor for some groups of individuals, for example, the elderly. Thus, watchful waiting can be a beneficial option in many cases.
It is necessary to mention that the decision to wait-and-see has downsides as well. For instance, some individuals may want to take actions as soon as possible. For them, waiting may decrease the quality of life, as they will be constantly worried about the potential development of cancer. As a result, patients may become anxious and develop depression. In addition, there is a chance that carcinoma in situ becomes an invasive tumor, which means that watchful waiting may be associated with health risks for an individual.
Surgical intervention is an alternative management option for the condition. Its primary benefit is that it allows eliminating the problem shortly after the first screening procedure. Moreover, this option ensures that carcinoma in situ will not become invasive. By choosing a surgical intervention, an individual can eliminate the stress associated with the possible development of cancer.
It is necessary to mention, however, that this option has fewer benefits compared to watchful waiting, as surgery may not be suitable for some groups of people and can result in poor health outcomes. In addition, a carcinoma in situ may never develop into cancer, which means that, in some cases, there will never be a need in a surgery (Merrill et al., 2016). As carcinoma in situ is not a life-threatening condition that should be treated immediately, it is possible to say that monitoring has more advantages for an individual.
In the management of a carcinoma in situ, both watchful waiting and an operative intervention can be used. However, as this type of tumor is not invasive and represents a group of abnormal cells, a surgery is not necessary. Regular monitoring of the condition is the most beneficial option for patients as it eliminates adverse outcomes associated with an operative intervention and does not interfere with individuals’ life.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2016). Understanding Pathophysiology (6th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby.
Merrill, A. L., Esserman, L., & Morrow, M. (2016). Ductal carcinoma in situ. New England Journal of Medicine, 374(4), 390-392.