Tumours are diseases that can be characterized with little percentage of preventive measures taken to forecast the condition of a patient or analyze the possibility of inherited genomes to provoke development of cancer tumours. In this respect, preventive measures should be taken in order to decrease the mortality rates all over the world in terms of cancer illness and breast cancer in particular.
The changes should be made in the area of preventive approaching the breast cancer as a chronic illness in institutions addressing the healthcare providers’ professional competencies and the way patients, families, and communities perceive this illness and prevent its appearance.
Breast cancer as a chronic disease
Breast cancer is a chronic illness because it is a recurring one and, as a rule, it progresses slowly. Mammary neoplasms are treated as a chronic illness if neoplasms occur constantly even after the use of invasive method and chemotherapy sessions and demonstrate a low progress.
In this respect, it needs a completely different approach than a single instance of breast cancer tumour that can be extracted and a tumour can happen to occur no more. Another case that can be considered in breast cancer treatment is the fast or inoperative instance of mammal neoplasm. Inherited propensity and different external factors (smoking, eating carcinogenic products, and others) can accelerate the risk of cancer occurrence.
However, sometimes, people live with cancer tumours all life long and undergo a number of chemotherapy sessions that slow down the development and spreading of infected cells. So, a patient should be screened for a breast cancer and appropriate measures should be taken if a patient has an inherited propensity of breast cancer. As reported by Perry et al. (2007),
in June 2003, the European Parliament called for establishment of a programme by 2008 which should lead to a future 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality rates in the EU and also a reduction to 5% in the disparity in the survival rates between member states” (p.615).
So, this can be considered the first set of measures to be taken for improving the treatment incorporation of preventive measures into practice as an alternative for supportive measures. Though supportive measures are necessary for patents that have been diagnosed advanced breast cancer tumour, it is necessary to think about alternative ways to decrease the rate of mortality caused by breast cancer and various complications.
Thus, Blamey et al. (2007) have studied the survival of invasive breast cancer which presupposes supportive taken for patients that were diagnosed advanced breast cancer tumour and have to perceive some treatment in the form of surgical invasion followed by chemotherapy sessions. In this respect, breast cancer can be characterised as a chronic illness that needs preventive measures to be introduced for healthcare providers and for patients and their families as an alternative to supportive measures.
Supportive care contrasted to preventive measures
As supportive measures were taken for breast cancer patients in the late 20th century, it is necessary to implement some preventive measures. Perry et al. (2007) suggests that even the supportive invasive measures were well-coordinated in case of advanced tumours diagnosis (p.619).
In other words, supportive measures are contrasted to timely screening of breast cancer and preventive measures taken for breast cancer patients. When preventive treatment does not work, it is necessary to implement healthcare education for patients and their families. In addition, all types of health care institutions should incorporate preventive measures for patients that have inherited predisposition to breast cancer.
Counselling sessions and other ways to inform people that may potentially be diagnosed breast cancer would be primary steps to prevent breast cancer and reduce the mortality rate. As a rule, the reports inform about increase in the spreading rates and the mortality rates.
However, the study by Ravdin et al. (2007) offers some evidence of the decrease in breast cancer incidence in breast cancer in the United States in 2003. Perhaps, it is necessary to analyze the measures taken by healthcare providers that year to achieve this result and continue in the same manner.
One of the possible ways to increase the awareness of patents in their possible illnesses is to inform the population of the measures to be taken to decrease the effect of various factors on their organism and undergo a set of procedures. Thus, Robson, & Offit (2007) report of certain risk assessment and genetic testing to be taken in case a patient can potentially be diagnosed breast cancer.
Besides, there are measures that can be taken to inform the patient and her family members about the risk and risk that exists in this case. A set of preventive measures can be taken if a person is of definite age and can be potentially diagnosed breast cancer due to certain external factors.
In addition, it is necessary to take some measures such as mammography to prevent the slightest possible percent of being diagnosed breast cancer. However, even if you are diagnosed breast cancer, it woud be more productive to remove the tumour and take non-invasive measures while fighting against the disease.
Another study that analyzes management measures that should be taken to prevent occurrence of a disease is the one by Narod & Offit (2005). Hereditary illnesses should be opposed to chronic ones.
In addition, there should be definite measures taken for patients that have already been diagnosed breast cancer and those who may potentially have it in future. As a rule, it is a matter of time if all female relatives of a patient were diagnosed breast cancer.
In this case, preventive therapy is the most appropriate measure that consist in risk assessment, genetic testing, counseling sessions, and other steps including breast examination, mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and screening for other cancers, as well as chemoprevention and surgery as parts of strategies for reducing risks.
Moreover, the preventive measures for breast cancer include prophylactic mastectomy, analysis of reproductive factors, and oophorectomy for breast cancer risk reduction.
As you can see, there are many steps that can be taken but the most appropriate way to fight against the cancer in the earliest stages is to take a combination of those steps and prevent the occurrence of the disease before the patient is diagnosed breast cancer.
It appears to be more productive to take preventive measures instead f taking invasive measures while dealing with such problem as breast cancer and inherited breast cancer.
When women face such problem, they should receive constructive counselling. Moreover, most women with a possibility to have breast cancer can undergo a set of preventive measures including mammography that would help to screen the tumour when non-invasive measures would be enough.
The patents as well as health care providers should be aware of the alternative measures to be taken in every separate case and certain complications and individual peculiarities that should be taken into account while considering preventive measures and certain complications, age, family health history, and other numerous factors.
Preventive measures can be introduced on the regular basis to help women with different stages of breast cancer to fight their disease int he most productive way.
Blamey, R.W., Ellisa, I.O., Pindera, S.E., Leea, A.H.S., Macmillana, R.D., Morgana, D.A.L.,… Elstona, C.W. (2007). Survival of invasive breast cancer according to the Nottingham Prognostic Index in cases diagnosed in 1990–1999. European Journal Of Cancer, 4 3, 1548-1555.
Narod, S. A., & Offit, K. (2005) Prevention and management of hereditary breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23 (8), 1656-1663.
Perry, N., Broeders, M., de Wolf, C., Törnberg, S., Holland, R., & von Karsa, L. (2007). European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. Fourth edition – summary document. Annals of Oncology, 19 (4), 614-622.
Ravdin, P. M., Cronin, K. A., Howlader, N., Berg, C. D., Chlebowski, R. T., Feuer, E. J., … Berry, D. A. (2007) The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine, 356 (16), 1670-1674.
Robson, M., & Offit, K. (2007). Management of an inherited predisposition to breast cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 357 (2), 154-162.