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Unique qualities and importance of interviews
In simple terms, interviews are goal-oriented and goal-driven transactions between two people (dyadic transactions). All forms of interviews are normally characterized by questions and answers with a clear structure, imbalance as well as control. Interviews have several characteristics common in other forms of communication between two people. However, interviews are unique in that their communication is primarily symbolic and transactional because both verbal and nonverbal communication is involved.
Besides, the communication within an interview requires meaning and is both representational and presentational. It is also worth noting that an interview allows two persons to reduce anxiety. Unlike other forms of two-way communication, an interview requires effective listening to be successful. In this context, the two individuals involved in an interview communication are required to be engaging, critical, and relational. It is also evident that communication within an interview involves identity, cultural and relational work. Despite this, these are not the only features that make interviews unique from other forms of communication between two people.
Five aspects of interviews make them unique and distinguish them from other types of communication. First, interviews are goal-driven, which means that communication between two parties aims to achieve something beyond the simple exchange of words and symbols. They have a clear purpose or goal to be achieved. In research, an interview aims to come up with information that will help to describe or solve a problem. Secondly, interviews have a question-answer structure.
One party is set to ask questions while the other has the role of providing answers to these questions. Thirdly, unlike other forms of communication between two parties, interviews are structured. For instance, interviews involve planning and preparation of questions to develop a clear sequence. This is not common in other forms of communication between two individuals because there is no chance for spontaneous communication or communication without purpose.
Moreover, the party responsible for asking questions (the interviewer) has the role of controlling an interview. The purpose of controlling the process is to ensure that it moves towards achieving the intended goal. Finally, an interview has an unbalanced time. In this context, the interviewer only takes less than 30% of the total time to speak while 70% is used to listen to the interviewee.
Learning interviews in business psychology is important for several reasons. For instance, it helps the student to develop skills in information finding, especially in areas that need one to get information from people. For example, the field of research in business requires an in-depth understanding of the parties involved, including corporate leaders, employees, intermediaries, and consumers.
Questions can be closed or open-ended. The two types of questions have distinct features that distinguish them. Also, these questions are broad and seek an answer with more than one word. For instance, “which aspects of your consumers would you like to know?” “What is your opinion?” and “how did this problem emerge?” These are open-ended questions because the inquirer expects to make the other party provide a broad idea of what he or she expects. In this case, the answer to the question is not limited in terms of words because one can provide a long answer.
On the other hand, closed-ended questions have one answer- either “yes” or “no”. Unlike open-ended questions, closed-ended questions tend to be very restrictive. For instance, they require an answer with one word. They can include several types of questions that need one or a few words to answer. Such questions include “please give one example?” “Is it possible to give another example?” and “do you have another question?” In such questions, the interviewer expects a “yes” or “no” answer.
Behavioral questions are data collection methods developed in the 1970s. The principle behind this interview type is an emphasis on past performance and past behaviors. Behavioral questions seek reliable answers that can be used to base an evaluation of a phenomenon. Unlike hypothetical or traditional questions, behavioral questions use a comprehensive approach that includes situations, tasks, actions, and results.
In this case, the aim is to apply past behavior to predict future performance in an organization, institution, or society. These questions seek to establish a behavioral pattern. Examples include “give me an example of a situation in which time-barred you from making a quick decision”, “give me an example of a time when the situation forced you to make a quick but accurate decision” and “how do you decide what task or item comes on top priority when managing your time at work?”.
Communication apprehension or CA is the level of fear or anxiety for communication with another individual or individuals. Communication apprehension can also be viewed as a psychological response to a process of evaluation. Recently, I developed this psychological response when preparing for a class presentation. I felt that I could not express myself or provide good answers to the anticipated questions. I also felt minor in the class (my audience) since I expected to either gain or lose marks based on my ability to present the topic. I was not sure of the degree of the conspicuousness of the subject at hand.
Besides, I was not able to predict the situation or types of questions. When a person is speaking in public, communication apprehension is manifested in several ways. For instance, a person may develop anxiety and show evidence of fear. This fear can be shown by signs of shyness, inability to face the audience, or shaking. Also, it is shown by a concentration on one point or topic. The person may be tense and unable to move from one point or topic to another in a comprehensive manner.
Before the interview, I felt disoriented and tense. I was uncomfortable and developed an urge to quit the process or force time to move faster. Probably, I felt this way due to communication apprehension. During the interview, the fear reduced significantly when the questioning process started. I was able to give the answers I believed were correct. However, I was still afraid of the nature of each successive question. The most probable reason for this fear is communication apprehension. After the interview, I felt relaxed, comfortable, and proud because I thought I had given the right and correct answers.
|Area||Strength||Weakness||How I can improve|
|Visual||Good eye contact||No hand gestures||Practice to include hand gestures|
|Oral||Coherence speech||talking too fast||Try to reduce the talking speed|