Home > Free Essays > Business > Case Study > Business Research: Management, HR and Marketing
Cite this

Business Research: Management, HR and Marketing Coursework


Introduction

Business research is a wide area whose literature is overwhelming. It includes various sub-disciplines under business-like management, human resources, and marketing. Marketing, in particular, is facing a lot of dynamism especially with the increased competition among business entities in the twenty-first century. In research, research questions guide researchers.

Research questions can be defined as statements that identify and state phenomena to be studies. With the guidance of research questions, answers are sought on problems that are prevalent in the respective field of study concerned. There is an elaborate process that is to be considered when formulating research questions. This, therefore, underscores the importance of research questions especially in business research and particularly in marketing where principles need to be updated all the time to meet the ever-changing customer needs and demands.

This research paper will focus on the analysis of two articles; Theory and Research in Strategic Management: Swings of a Pendulum and The 2004 AMA Definition of Marketing and its Relationship to a Market Orientation: An Extension of Cooke, Rayburn, & Abercrombie. The main research questions in these articles will be examined and analyzed against the literature and empirical information that the authors have presented. Additionally, every identified research question will be subjected to a framework that is used to generate research questions. The research questions will then be analyzed to determine the type of innovation that they generate within their respective area of research.

Research questions

In The 2004 AMA Definition of Marketing and its Relationship to a Market Orientation: An Extension of Cooke, Rayburn, & Abercrombie the definition of marketing is especially given impetus. The entire article is full of literature that addresses various aspects of the definition of marketing. The main research question therefore in this article will be; what is the definition of marketing? Besides there are other aspects such as schools of marketing though whose literature and view seek to answer the question; what are the various schools of marketing though and how are they related to the definition of marketing?

An in-depth analysis and research is undertaken in the article Theory and Research in Strategic Management: Swings of a Pendulum. Especially given emphasis is the historical development of the field of business management and the numerous transformations that it had to go through. The main research question, therefore, the article addresses is; what are the origins and evolutionary aspects of the field of business management? Additionally, the issues of methodology have been given impetus in the article. It’s therefore imperative to include the question, what are the main methodological ways that have been used over the years in the evolution of business management?

Lack of consensus on the real definition of marketing is the main theme in the article The History of Marketing Thought as Reflected in the Definitions of Marketing. An examination of the different meanings of marketing is undertaken through the various schools of thought in the field. Given the possibility of the meaning of marketing changing again with time, the main question, therefore, should be; what is the comprehensive meaning and definition of marketing and how has it evolved? Additionally, it will be prudent to include the question; which is the most appropriate school of thought through which consensus on the definition of marketing can be reached?

Research Questions and Empirical and Theoretical research Content (Synopsis)

What is the definition of marketing?

In The 2004 AMA Definition of Marketing and its Relationship to a Market Orientation: An Extension of Cooke, Rayburn, & Abercrombie, the three authors examine historical definitions of marketing in a bid to define and explore four main schools of thought of marketing. The theory and empirical research that is presented in the article seeks to suggest that a new school of thought that encompasses the stakeholder point of view be incorporated into the marketing schools of thought.

What are the various schools of marketing thought and how are they related to the definition of marketing?

The article highlights the four major schools of thought of marketing, that include, economic utility, consumer, societal and managerial viewpoints and schools of thought. Through the marketing schools of thought analysis, the question seeks to prove the point that the marketing concept has largely remained more or less the same while its definition has changed radically. It, therefore, calls for the incorporation of new viewpoints such as the stakeholder viewpoint.

What are the origins and evolutionary aspects of the field of business management?

The question aims at uncovering the humble beginnings of the discipline of business management to the more established discipline that it is in business and organizations today. The questions aim at addressing research on the core area of business management that is applied to strategic management that focuses on business concepts affecting the performance of the firm.

What are the main methodological ways that have been used over the years in the evolution of business management?

This question is used to determine the main methods used in the study of business management. Question especially leads to the review of the use of qualitative measures in determining a firm’s resources and the way they are used.

Framework for formulating interesting marketing research questions

Through the framework shown in the figure below, innovations in marketing research are realized. The process of researching, developing and commercializing an idea can be described as an invention (Mazzucato, 2000, p. 102). It revolves around the contexts of newness, changes, opportunities, creativity and value creation.

The method developed below has four types of innovation namely: incremental, radical, modular and architectural. A brief look into each one of them will be necessary for a better understanding of the type of innovation that the research questions discussed above generate.

Incremental innovation occurs when improvements take place at the component level only. The architecture of the components is left unchanged most of the time. There is refining and extension of established designs with improvements occurring in individual components while the prototypes remain the same (Leifer, 2000, p. 81).

Radical innovation, on the other hand, establishes entirely new and different designs. The concepts linking components are embodied through new architecture that has significant variation from the original (Shavinina, 2003, p. 67). There is a complete makeover of the structure.

Modular innovation changes the concepts of the original works while the relationship between them remains the same. The best illustration of this innovation is the introduction of digital television sets replacing analog ones. The core concept is the same only the relationship has changed (Beall & Beall, 2010, p. 23).

Architectural innovation modifies the architecture of the product while the components of the core design remain the same (Drucker, 2009, p. 190). There is a complete makeover of the structure but the vital organs that make it remain the same with little or no differentiation.

Framework for formulating interesting marketing research questions
Adopted from: Shavinina, V.L. (2003). The international handbook on innovation. NJ: Infobase Publishers.

Incremental and modular changes are also referred to as evolutionary changes while radical and architectural changes are referred to as revolutionary. The references represent the magnitudes of changes that take place in each within each type of innovational change (Drucker, 2009, p. 191).

According to Hague, the innovations described above can be looked at from numerous perspectives depending on the subject matter under study (2002, p. 83).

Research questions and Innovation Framework

What is the definition of marketing?

There are both incremental and architectural innovations represented through this question. According to the article, the definition of marketing has radically changed while the concepts have remained the same. Marketing has remained and will remain the same in the foreseeable future. However, according to Cooke, Raybum and Abercrombie’s (1992), there needs to be changes that will reflect the current thinking and that conforms to the new environment that is as a result of the 21st business innovations and developments. It’s however important to note that the authors operate on the premise that the basic principles of marketing don’t need to change. They have not changed at all like definition has.

What are the various schools of marketing thought and how are they related to the definition of marketing?

An analysis of the existing schools of thought in marketing reveals the need for an addition of another one. The various viewpoints that support the establishment and existence of the schools of thought have evolved and added as need be. They have reflected the evolution of the discipline. The suggestion therefore that another school of thought that is supported by the stakeholder viewpoint reflects incremental change. The addition of the new viewpoint essentially means that an improvement of the components is necessary. However, the architecture of the marketing concept and the schools of thought remain the same. Additionally, there is modular innovation in that the relationship between the components remains the same despite the development of new ideas.

What are the origins and evolutionary aspects of the field of business management?

This question dwells on the historical perspective of the field of business management. The research literature presented shows an architectural innovation in the field. The field has gone through drastic changes in industrial organization in economics to a swing back to the organization of the firm. Additionally, the methodologies used to study the discipline have drastically over time. However, despite the changes in the components of the overall business management, the overall components remain the same. To a limited extent bits of radical innovation can be identified as evidenced by the back and forth swings in terms of management.

What are the main methodological ways that have been used over the years in the evolution of business management?

There is an evolution of methodology in the field of business management. According to Hoskisson et al, 2005, over time there has been a need for the development of methodologies that support empirical research in business management. This is in response to the need to satisfy the requirements of creating concrete concepts in the field. The shift from theoretical to mathematical orientation, especially in the economics bit of business management, represents a radical shift in innovation. It’s important to note that the shift has borne fruit as evidenced by the development of empirical concepts.

Conclusion

When looked at in detail, the types of innovation covered above explain the changes that have taken place in the disciplines discussed. There are many more research questions that could have helped uncover the innovations. However, the ones dealt with here provide a summary in a big picture of the changes that espoused by the innovations.

References

Beall, E.A. & Beall, E.A. (2010). Strategic Market Research: A Guide to Conducting Research. London: Sage Publications.

Drucker, F. P. (2009). Innovation and Entrepreneurship. NY: Cengage Learning.

Hague, N.P. (2002). Market research: a guide to planning, methodology & evaluation. NY: Routledge.

Leifer, R. (2000). Radical innovation: how mature companies can outsmart upstarts. Berlin: Springer.

Mazzucato, M. (2000). Firm size, innovation, and market structure. London: Thomson’s learning.

Shavinina, V.L. (2003). The international handbook on innovation. NJ: Infobase Publishers.

This coursework on Business Research: Management, HR and Marketing was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.

Need a custom Coursework sample written from scratch by
professional specifically for you?

Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar

301 certified writers online

GET WRITING HELP
Cite This paper

Select a referencing style:

Reference

IvyPanda. (2020, July 22). Business Research: Management, HR and Marketing. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-research-management-hr-and-marketing/

Work Cited

"Business Research: Management, HR and Marketing." IvyPanda, 22 July 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/business-research-management-hr-and-marketing/.

1. IvyPanda. "Business Research: Management, HR and Marketing." July 22, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-research-management-hr-and-marketing/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "Business Research: Management, HR and Marketing." July 22, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-research-management-hr-and-marketing/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "Business Research: Management, HR and Marketing." July 22, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-research-management-hr-and-marketing/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Business Research: Management, HR and Marketing'. 22 July.

More related papers