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The Sui dynasty was a powerful Chinese dynasty that existed between 589 and 618 (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006). After the end of The Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty emerged and it existed between 618 and 917 (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006).
On the other hand, the Song dynasty existed between 960 and 1279 and during this era, many positive changes occurred (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006). This paper will discuss social, economical, and political changes that occurred in these three dynasties.
Social structure: After the death of emperor Wen, his song Yang took over the government; he made many social structural changes to the dynasty (Hansen, 2000). Yang extended Sui dynasty and emphasized on Confucianism culture. Furthermore, he restored the Confucianism education system (Hansen, 2000).
Political structure: During the reign of Sui dynasty, both emperor Wen and Yang established strong militaries, which were very successful (Ebrey, Walthall and Palais, 2009). Emporor Yang sent soldiers to Vietnam where they became victorious. In fact, the strong Sui’s army was victories against the Champa Kingdom.
Economical structure: Emperor Wen improved the state of economy by building better infrastructures (Hansen, 2000). In addition to this, he established granaries, which were used to store food and regulate market prices; this played a vital role in the Chinese economy (Studwell, 2003).
Social structure: During the reign of Tang dynasty, the Chinese culture flourished and became more mature (Studwell, 2003). The Chinese poetry and printing became popular; scholars produced great literature and woodblock printing was invented too (Studwell, 2003).
Great painters such as Zuan Xuan and Han Gan produced high quality work popularizing the art of painting in China (Studwell, 2003). During this era, Chinese people also accepted Buddhism culture.
Political structure: During this era, the Chinese population increased considerably and the dynasty established a strong and professional army, which conquered the inner Asia (Studwell, 2003).
Emperor Xuangzong also established new military policies discarding the system of recruiting soldier every three years. Instead, he established a strong and permanent army (Ebrey, Walthall and Palais, 2009).
Economical structure: During this era, the government carried out an accurate census to enable effective taxation (Ebrey, Walthall and Palais, 2009).
Consequently, the Tang dynasty established crop and cloth taxation. Moreover, the Tang dynasty took over the Silk Road, which was a powerful trading route; this was a major economical boost (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006).
Economical structure: The Song dynasty was the first administration in the world to issue bank notes (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006).
In addition, the Song Chinese did a lot of investment in stock companies and the government allowed its citizen to occupy monopoly businesses (Studwell, 2003). In fact, the Chinese occupied the iron industry stabilizing Song’s economy.
Social structure: The social life during this era was good although social classes were noticeable. The upper class traded artworks while the public (common citizens) interacted at public places.
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The movable type printing replaced woodblock printing and there were many inventions too in fields of technology, science, and engineering (Studwell, 2003). Philosopher Zui Xi and others brought new ideas therefore establishing the New-Confucianism (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006).
Political structure: During this era, the government established the civil service system of recruiting government officials, which was based on merits (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006). Emperor Taizu controlled his military to centralize power at the Song’s court and he also emphasized on the “Confucianism spirit of humane administration” (Duiker and Spielvogel, 2006).
In summary, the Song, Tang, and Sui dynasties represent a wonderful history of the ancient Chinese government. Although the three dynasties existed at different periods, they brought remarkable changes in political, social, and economical spheres. These and other many changes have contributed to the modern China.
Duiker, W. J. & Spielvogel, J. J. (2006). World History; To 1800. Michigan: Cengage Learning.
Ebrey, P., Walthall, A., Palais, J. (2009). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt press.
Hansen, V. (2000). The Open Empire: A History of China to 1600. New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company.
Studwell, J. (2003). The China Dream: The Quest for the Last Great Untapped Market on Earth. New York: Grove Press.