Home > Free Essays > Environment > Environmental Studies > Community Environmental Exposure in Bayou Vista and Omega Bay

Community Environmental Exposure in Bayou Vista and Omega Bay Essay (Critical Writing)

Exclusively available on IvyPanda Available only on IvyPanda
Updated: Apr 28th, 2022

Introduction

Some of the key indisputable facts about Bayou Vista and Omega Bay are the major dangers facing the two communities following environmental exposure to Vinylchloride (VC) and Polyvinylchloride (PVC) chemicals disasters. Christensen and White (2011) point out that the aforementioned chemicals from industries and local factories pose serious health threats and possible deaths. Empirical research studies on the environmental impact assessment of these two communities reveal that individuals exposed to the chemicals have developed various health complications. For instance, one of the key health-related problems is cancer. This has been attributed to long term exposure to Dioxins and vynil chloride monomer.

Exposure to Vinylchloride (VC) and Polyvinylchloride (PVC)

Duan, Sheppard and Fedler (2010) posit that the organochloride vinylchloride or chloroethane is a chemical that has the formula H2C:CHCL and appears as a colorless compound. This chemical is an important component in chemical industries that deal with the production of polymer polyvinyl chloride. It is worth noting that this organic compound is a gas at ambient or room temperature and pressure. Besides, it is carcinogenic, flammable and highly toxic. Besides, it has a sickly sweet aroma. Vinyl chloride is one of the most harmful chemicals being released into the environment on a regular basis.

One of the industries that manufactures PVC in Bayou Vista is the Vista Chemical Company. It has several operating plants one of which is the Chocolate Bayou. The latter produces aromatics, butadiene, propylene and ethylene. On the other hand, Vaneer industry has been using the mentioned chemical in the production of PVC’s in Omega bay which its community and the nation at large have been using. Reports indicate that these industries release large amounts of vinyl chloride into the atmosphere forming dense clouds which when compared with the surrounding air, is twice as heavy. This has been a significant health threat due to the possibility of fire outbreak. Zhou et al. (2011) posit that a fire explosion from the autorefrigerate released may eventually cause an emission of toxic carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride.

Polyvinylchloride is a widely produced and used plastic for construction, electrical cable insulation, upholstery and clothing as well as for other applications. In many industries, the level of chlorine is added in PVC’s via chlorination. It is also important to note that while PVC poses no health risks to human beings, its carcinogenic precursor, which is usually referred to as vinylchloride (VC) monomer when combined with heavy metals has the potential of causing massive health problems. The table below shows a summary of proof of causation from Bradford Hill criteria, health outcome and category of the two chemicals that are harmful to the environment.

Carcinogenetic of vinyl chloride and Polyvinyl chloride

Determining the carcinogenetic of both polyvinyl chloride and vinyl chloride have been major areas of study with specific attentions to the risks they pose to the environment as well as their epidemiological presentation. Reports from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as well as the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSN) indicate that these chemicals are potential carcinogens in the physical environment and human beings. As such, exposure to these chemicals causes health complications (Tao, Li & Xu, 2011).

Carcinogenicity of Vinyl chloride and Meta analysis

Studies from laboratories point out that exposure to vinyl chloride of about 25 ppm to an environment and eventual inhalation by organisms definitely causes angiosarcoma, while limited exposures of approximately 1 ppm induces mammary carcinomas. Besides, other investigations show that vinyl chloride is mutagenic in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and the Drosophilla. In addition, an exposure to the halides of vinyl chloride has adverse effects that include spleen or liver abnormalities, skeletal effects, skin effects, respiratory effects, cardiovascular effects and the central nervous ;system effects.

Carcinogenicity of PVC

The inertness of PVC makes it a very useful material due to the levels of low toxicity. However, it is imperative to note that PVC powder has the potential of causing possible medical problems. Significant health related issues from polyvinyl chloride are related to dioxins, additives, incineration products and its carcinogenic precursor vinyl chloride monomer. These when exposed to the environment, can cause massive health impacts similar to those of vinyl chloride on both plants and animals.

Plasticizers within a PVC product may cause health risks when leached into an environment. However, this is not a common occurrence due to the nature of PVC’s and the fact that vinyl articles mare tightly bound. However, exposure to PVC products used to make floors and others like toys, curtains and car interiors release gases containing chemicals in the air that when inhaled causes cancer and other health complications..

Study # Author Reference and
proof of causation from the Bradford Hill criteria stand
point with each chemical
Health Outcome Analysis (review of biases) Category (conclusive, inconclusive, suggestive and by which agency?)
________
observational studies, whether cross sectional, case-control, cohort
Other pertinent info
1 Dragani, T. and Zocchetti, C. (2008) Occupational exposure to vinyl chloride and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

Chemical : Vinyl Chloride

Proof of causation:

  • Vynil chloride is strongly associated with liver cancer.
  • Exposure to vinyl chloride is a factor that causes cancer.
  • Statistical and laboratory test on exposure of individuals to the chemical strongly indicates the relationship.
  • An increase in exposure enhances chances of individuals getting cancer and other health complications.
  • This report is consistent with other relevant environmental studies and data from health agencies.
Liver cancer, spleen or liver abnormalities, skeletal effects, skin effects, respiratory effects, cardiovascular effects and the central nervous ;system effects. No biases Report is conclusive as indicated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) none
2 McLaughlin, J. & Lipworth, L. (1999) A critical review of the epidemiologic literature on health effects of occupational exposure to vinyl chloride.

Chemical: Polyvinyl chloride.

Proof of causation:

  • Polyvinyl chloride is not in itself carcinogenic, but can cause cancer through its precursor vinyl chloride monomer, through leaching and leaking into the air from toys, curtains etc.
  • Polyvinyl is safe. However, exposure to its leakages and precursor can cause serious health effects.
  • There is relationship between exposure and illness.
  • The facts are consistent with reports from National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSN)
Liver cancer, spleen or liver abnormalities, skeletal effects, skin effects, respiratory effects, cardiovascular effects and the central nervous ;system effects. No biases Report is conclusive as indicated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) none

Contamination and health effects

A health and environmental survey conducted by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry in Texas reveal that many industries in Bayou Vista and Omega Bay release toxic chemical substances which expose the.environment to sediments, ground water, biota, air, surface water and soil contamination. An analysis of the subsurface and surface soils at the area surrounding Vista industry revealed massive contaminations of the soils with chlorine and benzene found in the soil. Samples of ground water and surface water were also tested and high levels of chemical contaminations discovered. According to the United Nations, major contaminations from vinylchloride (VC) in these communities have been in the hydrosphere and the atmosphere. When the industries in these regions release toxic substances into the atmosphere, they spread very fast due to atmospheric dynamics polluting the air while rain water washes some to the nearby rivers that carry toxic substance downstream.

Reports indicate that the areas surrounding Bayou Vista and Omega bay have been exposed to vinyl chloride monomers and which as a result of carcinogenicity, has caused rising cases of liver cancer among the local populations and substantial deaths (Ishii et al., 2012). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the US indicates that the exposure of the environment to vinyl chloride monomer has caused the mentioned communities incapacitating reversible and serious reversible illnesses. Dioxins have been major sources of health complications like endometriosis, different cancers, reproductive disorders and immune system suppression (Huang et al., 2012). Other related dangers include the release of vinylchloride (VC) monomer and dioxin toxins to the natural system and the bio-accumulative effects among the biota. Notably, chemicals used in making PVC’s are highly persistent when they get into the biological systems.

The health dangers associated with this environmental exposure of vinyl chloride and polyvinyl has on the two communities are very extensive. Besides affecting the social sphere of the environment, the atmosphere, soil and water ways in these areas have also been affected. Zhou et al, (2011) posit that these dangers are highly intertwined and demand central application of the correct policies to address them. The need to develop considerations with the environmental integrity should be emphasized. It is also imperative that before disposing toxic substances key prior analysis of their effects be established to determine the expected negative effects and therefore address them to prevent disasters. Ecologically, the two regions have remained highly contaminated and therefore totally abused (Zhou et al, 2011). Socially, the trauma of experiencing problems from exposure to toxic chemicals and resulting factors like lifetime deformities, key illnesses, death of relatives and living in evacuation areas have been issues that have traumatized the populations in these regions. It is from this consideration that the precautionary principle should be fully embraced in all industries globally to avoid such problems.

Addressing environmental exposure

Addressing environmental exposure to toxic substances from industries has been cited as a key facet in dictating how communities and states need to prepared in ensuring that the environment is protected. Environmental exposure to pollution as Crews and Gore (2011) posit is one of the greatest dangers that many communities near industries are facing today. Despite the problem being scientifically proven, many communities and individual entities still follow the Marxist model of maximizing their returns at the expense of an endangered environment. Planners too have failed to focus on this danger by putting up structures that promote continued emission of toxic substances. As indicated earlier, pollution effects usually have far reaching implications which can last for many years without being detected and can cause tremendous damage to all the spheres of the environment-biotic, atmospheric and lithosphere. Efforts to reduce environmental exposure are indeed necessary to promote a safe and healthy environment.

References

Christensen, K. & White, P. (2011). A methodological approach to assessing the health impact of environmental chemical mixtures: PCBs and hypertension in the national health and nutrition examination survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(11), 4220-4237.

Crews, D. & Gore, A. (2011). Life imprints: living in a contaminated world. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(9), 1208-10.

Duan, R., Sheppard, C. & Fedler, C. (2010). Short-term effects of wastewater land application on soil chemical properties. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 211(1- 4), 165-176.

Huang, C., Lyu, S., Chen, J. & Hu, M. (2012). The anti-metastatic efficacy of [beta]- ionone and the possible mechanisms of action in human hepatocarcinoma SK- Hep-1 cells. The British Journal of Nutrition, 107(5), 631-638.

Ishii, H., Kobayashi, T., Kudou, M., Nishimura, M., Toma, A., Nakamura, K., Mazaki, T. & Itoh , T. (2012). Anatomical liver segmentectomy 2 for combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma with tumor thrombus in segment 2 portal branch. World Journal of Surgical Oncology, 10(1), 22.

Tao, M., Li, H. & Xu, H. (2011). Influencing factor analysis of the investment efficiency of the environmental governance. Grey Systems, 1(3), 240-249.

Zhou, Y., Wang, H., Chen, Y. & Jiang, Q. (2011). Environmental and food contamination with plasticisers in China. The Lancet, 378(9803), e4

This critical writing on Community Environmental Exposure in Bayou Vista and Omega Bay was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.
Removal Request
If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda.
Request the removal

Need a custom Critical Writing sample written from scratch by
professional specifically for you?

801 certified writers online

Cite This paper
Select a referencing style:

Reference

IvyPanda. (2022, April 28). Community Environmental Exposure in Bayou Vista and Omega Bay. https://ivypanda.com/essays/community-environmental-exposure-in-bayou-vista-and-omega-bay/

Reference

IvyPanda. (2022, April 28). Community Environmental Exposure in Bayou Vista and Omega Bay. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/community-environmental-exposure-in-bayou-vista-and-omega-bay/

Work Cited

"Community Environmental Exposure in Bayou Vista and Omega Bay." IvyPanda, 28 Apr. 2022, ivypanda.com/essays/community-environmental-exposure-in-bayou-vista-and-omega-bay/.

1. IvyPanda. "Community Environmental Exposure in Bayou Vista and Omega Bay." April 28, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/community-environmental-exposure-in-bayou-vista-and-omega-bay/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "Community Environmental Exposure in Bayou Vista and Omega Bay." April 28, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/community-environmental-exposure-in-bayou-vista-and-omega-bay/.

References

IvyPanda. 2022. "Community Environmental Exposure in Bayou Vista and Omega Bay." April 28, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/community-environmental-exposure-in-bayou-vista-and-omega-bay/.

References

IvyPanda. (2022) 'Community Environmental Exposure in Bayou Vista and Omega Bay'. 28 April.

Powered by CiteTotal, easy essay citation maker
More related papers