Involvement of End-users in Database Management System and Database Design
End users are in charge of the daily use of databases. Therefore, they need to know how to maneuver through the database systems. This goal can only be achieved by their involvement in database management systems and design in all phases. After identifying the need for a database management system in an organization, the second phase involves selecting the appropriate design that meets the needs of the organization. In this process, the participation of end-users is critical in helping to minimize resistance to change that is brought about by the system in the rollout phase. Through their participation in the process, system designers rest assured that end-users will not perceive the new system as a threat to their jobs.
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The deployment of a database environment does not only demand the selection of technology. It needs the consideration of altering an organization’s perception and attitudes towards information management. Considering any perceived negative threat of an information management system, the end-users should participate in developing functions for data administration and planning. This process is necessary since people are most likely to embrace a system that they know well its functionalities and contribution to organizational processes. To this extent, end-users play a critical role in mitigating any political resistance. Such resistance hinders the implementation of important database concepts, particularly relating to the sharing of information that is controlled by one group within an organization. End users are critical in the early detection of bugs, which may lead to partial or total failure of a database system in the future. Without their participation in the selection of design options, including the development and implementation processes, they may fail to detect early enough any deviation from normal functionalities. Hence, end-users should be involved in database management systems and database design in all design processes, system diagnosis, and troubleshooting.
Importance of Smartphones in the Digital Era
The rapid growth in the IT sector has prompted the emergence of several applications, which can run on mobile devices. The applications run on Smartphones and other mobile devices. Many of the mobile applications were initially designed to run as games on mobile devices. However, with the development of the android, iPhone, and iPad technology, the businesses began gaining interest in investigating whether such technologies may be instrumental in transferring some of the applications that run on their desktops to the mobile devices in a manner where they could get an opportunity to attract more people to their customer pools. The dilemma received a positive response with the development of more applications that run on Smartphones. For instance, applications have been developed to permit persons to take pictures of accident scenes and then forward them to their respective insurers as part of the data that is required in the processing of the compensation claims. A good example of such an application is the Nationwide® Mobile. The nationwide insurance company developed this application. It runs on iPhones. It allows policyholders to forward their insurance claims immediately an accident takes place.
Nationwide® Mobile application is designed to give room for the policyholders to take pictures of the scenes of accidents and then attach the photos to the claim data. When this process is completed, the application loads the information contained in the claims on Nationwide’s server. Australia rolled out its ‘my health records’ application, which can run on Smartphones. It permits people to manage their health information. Today, organizations such as Amazon.com use B-2-B or B-2-C business applications that run on devices such as Smartphones, given that they have internet connectivity. People can also manage their finances, send, and receive money through Smartphones. Therefore, it is clear that Smartphones are already the single most important digital devices that people own.