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Discrimination of certain categories of the population Research Paper

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Updated: Feb 13th, 2020

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Gender

Amongst the many social forces that orient the society to behave in a particular way, gender has played a substantial contribution to the manner in which responsibilities were shared since the onset of the human race.

In one way or another, women were prejudiced and allocated roles that were more of considered inappropriate to their ‘superior counterparts’: men. Fights to eradicate gender-based inequalities were initiated for instance in America by women groups and other lobby groups, which labeled themselves as ‘feminine’. The consequences were conferment of equal voting rights for both human genders.

Over the decades, fights against the gender-based prejudices have taken their toll with advocating of equal job status and opportunities for both women and men in the corporate levels. However, this is an ideal case in theory. Many scholars get intrigued whether this ideal proclamation of gender equality is applicable in practice. Do women bosses create similar leadership command to the employees tantamount to that of men bosses occupying similar positions?

Throughout my life experience, I have not encountered a scenario of gender prejudice, as claimed by some scholars apparently because the modern gender distinctions seem much played under the table. It demands ardent scrutiny to recognize it for instance in Canada acts of gender inequalities, which remain heavily punished by the law.

According to the Standing committee on the Status of women, “A new set of indicators that puts more emphasis on the economic functioning of the different indicators ranked Canada, in terms of the gender gap between women and men in 2006, at number 14, and in 2007, at number 18” (Para. 1).

This suggests down ward trend in the fight against gender biasness. This finding constitutes a major blow to Canadian incredible fight against gender bias that resulted to its ratings in the united nation s development reports that focus on gender and human development index. To me, I fill to agree with this information since women have significantly improved their contribution to the labor markets especially to their increased attainment of women education.

Furthermore, with regard to the statistics provided by the standing committee on women status (Para. 3), the evolution of women in labor markets has significantly grown from “From a low of 46.5% in 1977, women’s participation rate to the Canadian labor market increased to 62.1% in 2006”. The same report indicates that during the same period, men’s participation decreased from the heights of 77.6 % to 72.5%.

Statistics are provided by many advocates of existence of gender inequalities in Canada to provide the evidence for their argumentations. As a way of exemplification, majority of the researchers for instance, Nelson claims “Witnesses provided the Committee with national statistics and indicators that demonstrate Canada’s gender inequalities (Para. 11). For example, Professor Kathleen Lahey from Queen’s University indicated that the data demonstrate that women continue to do most of the unpaid work”.

The argument is that, women take the significant share of the unpaid work as opposed to men. For the a nation to be more healthy and hence productive, nations attempts to promote better mix of both paid and unpaid work for both men and women but rather not to promote co-linearity of both genders incomes.

The intents of the feminists fighters in as much as the equality of women and men incomes are concerned, clearly indicate that gender, as social force persists till to date but in some rather unpronounced mild form. I fill that the problem that is ailing strategies that are deemed appropriate to render women equal to men at corporate level is all to do with over subscription to traditional perceptions.

One of the facts is that we are coming from a society with history of ancient non-accordance of equal opportunities to both women and men. Since, during transitional changes from one regime to the other must comprise some transfusion of some social indulgencies to the incoming regime in varying magnitudes, we should expect some taints of gender inequality to be evident in the current generation. At subordinate level, gender inequalities might have died to non-recognizable levels.

Unfortunately, at the top managerial posts preferences of male corporate leader over the female leader are registered. Even some of the corporations with top female corporate leaders are characterized by less accordance of social status accorded to the incumbent. In as much this goes against the provisions of the law, such scenarios have been observed as evidenced by “various law suits implicating large corporate companies with giving men incumbent’s higher salaries” (Kane 9) for the same job than women.

Does our attempts to try to portray women’s physical equality with men by placing them in construction work and other job perceive by a stereotypic individual as reserves of men place women at a competitive advantage in the race of gender equality? The truth of the matter is we are still living in men dominant world but with fares to acerbate the differences in fear of the coercive force of law.

Despite the calls for federal governments to correct the varying identified gender inequalities perceived as hindrances to overall success of any nation, I fill that we should appreciate that the whole process is evolutionary. However application of dual approach: evolutionary and inculcation of appropriate policies and legislative programs can incredibly help to solve the stalemate so that in future the persisting gender inequalities will all be dead.

Race

It is agreeable by virtually all researchers that all people are different in one way or another. One of the differentiating criteria of human beings is their race. People are outwardly different in terms of their skin color, hair, eye shape and color, facial organs, limb sizes and size of body parts.

“Though scientists have reached the conclusion that these differences amongst people are superficial and have further agreed that all members of the species homo sapiens have more characteristics in common than different, mankind itself continues to view each other form features that are outwardly perceived” (Fernando Para. 5).

The existing extrinsic differences between human beings give an indication of originality for a certain line of human race. The racial disease symptoms becomes escalated when the symptoms end up being evident, fosters separation, becomes intolerable, and welcomes racial hatred.

As Ng notes, “racial prejudice perverts these uniqueness of the races and takes the view that these differences separate individuals further into groups, with one being inferior to the other” (Para. 6). Belonging to a given race is not a crime and no one makes such a choice. I fill that every person should appreciate the uniqueness of his or her race. However, one’s perceptions of belonging to a particular race should not attract stereotypic racial associations.

In as much as I belong from an Asian race, the positive stereotypic association of Chinese with, industriousness, fosters racial prejudice since it provides a means of comparative analysis. Despite due to this stereotypic perception a Canadian Chinese is likely to be preferred for jobs that require dealing with numbers over any other Canadian, racial stereotypic advantage for Chinese with this regard denies other Canadians equal opportunity that is supposed to dominate the free and fair market.

Racial profiling is strong social force that afflicts every one. “Racial prejudice affects everyone since in as much as racial prejudice manifests itself in that people are “pre-judged” based on superficial characteristics, we must honestly conclude that all people “suffer” from this on various levels” (Fernando Para 8).

This is particularly true if we do not know other people so well. The most obvious way of judging either unconsciously or consciously is through on what we see. Unfortunately, what we see in an individual who we are not well acquainted with is the racial differences.

More often than not, the general attitude is to correlate the good virtues with person if he or she belongs to your race irrespective of the historically established prejudices against your race. On the other hand, prejudgments of other people will be based on the stereotypic perceptions adopted from the environment: negative to those races that one has been exposed to hatred toward and positive for those whom one has positive stereotypic perceptions.

Chances are “We will form opinions, often based along stereotypical lines: “all people of such and such race are…We can fill in the blanks with such expectations that certain races are intellectually superior, others are full of avarice” (Mendes and Srighanthan 10). The racial ideas are attributable to our upbringing, the characteristics of the society of which we part and parcel of, and media.

However, the racial prejudices originated with the light of Canada committing itself to fight racism by incorporation of mechanisms such as the objection of the use of the last ethnic names amongst the seniors of large corporations’ mangers. Worse off, even the members of a society that are considered most enlightened have the capacity to make encounters in which he/she make judgments on accounts of superficial racial aspects.

I agree with this critical perspective point of view since is deep intrinsically within an individual to easily strike a talk and possibly easily mingle with new people who belongs to my race; not by choice neither because I have been taught to do so, but by nature. The social force of race has shaped societies from since time begun.

To counteract the negative stereotypic societal perception based on racial differences, “Modern-day societies have drafted and enacted legislation to ensure that people “treat” each other with respect and dignity allowing one another their inalienable right to their pursuit of life and liberty” (Mendes, and Srighanthan 21). Crucial to bear in mind is that, human actions that tend to foster racial prejudices can be altered through legislation but racial fears that rather emanate from individuals personalities cannot be altered through legislation.

No matter how much we fight racism, it taints hardly fail to surface. As Chen records, “Racial prejudice, is a product of our fear based existence designed to perpetuate our fear based existence, and ensure that racial prejudice continues to exist” (Para. 7). As an Asian, critics of Asians attitude towards academics cannot fail to attract my attention even though it may not be true.

During the studies, every Chinese who is aware of this stereotypic perception will always have fears as to whether his/her academic pursuits are geared towards achievement of the intended learning outcomes or triggered by the need to score higher marks. It is not a nightmare to question the capability of your grades especially when one scores very high to reflect the level of knowledge acquired.

Class

Social class is a dilemma that enormously contributes the way people perceive themselves in the light of the eyes of the vast world dominated with people with varying social groupings. Despite disparities amongst people, social classes are differentiated against economic capabilities criteria as opposed to other social distinction parameters.

In this connection, three classes existed: high class or upper class, middle class and lower class. As Ossowski, says, “Higher social classes tend to be successful people, therefore, if you are born into it, your network is rich, successful people, increasing your chances for success” (15). The success comes as result of enjoyment of many opportunities and privileges associates with the higher living classes. This argument by great extent agrees with my lifelong experiences.

For instance, being born and brought up in an area that was predominantly inhabited by people belonging to middle class or otherwise high class I enjoyed luxurious life especially in school. The schools in my region enjoyed financial extensions to aid in their equipments. Unfortunately, the disadvantaged schools did not even have sufficient money to make them run smoothly leave alone for improvement.

The ideas of creation of equal social classes are rather concepts of idealism reasoned from theoretical perspectives point of views. It is evident in any real social setting that, “Those in lower social classes often have to fight for some of these already filled positions” (Itsin 41).

This may seem like an attempt to give an indication of existence of nepotism social class, but this is not always the case since even if the rule of equal opportunities creation was applied, members of this high social class will always emerge the most preferred candidates to fill the big employment opportunities.

The reasons are obvious! They must have been the ones who must have enjoyed the best education. As Lawton argues, “Coming from this higher social class doesn’t always guarantee success…they are given the chance more readily than someone else, but they still have to prove themselves once they are there” (Para. 4).

But then, how can a person who comes from poor background, attended the most disadvantaged schools which are less equipped have substantial wealth of knowledge required especially in modern information world to amicably prove himself or herself in the work environment?

Association with a social class that are perceived as successful doesn’t only give individuals economic privileges possessed by members of that class but also helps to build the way individuals perceives themselves. Those belonging to higher social classes have been shown by many researches to possess higher self-esteem and more ‘I can’ power.

Such people feel that they have better chances in life and more likely possess greater public confidence since they have better clothing, hairstyles, and good looks among others. Belonging to a class that is financially upright facilitates to ensure that one has more time to focus on some other things for instance saving time while eating out, making price comparisons among others.

A financially capable person has also an opportunity to grasp the market’s attention on his/her capabilities since he/she has the ability to market himself/herself fast enough and hence take the existing opportunities much faster than financially handicapped people. In case of self-employment, such people are able to raise the capital much faster and hence the chance of capturing the existing market opportunities falls squarely on them first.

Instances of society subdivision based on social classes, clearly are hardly absent in any social setting. Look for instance in the family scenario. “Youth are often taught to fit in within their social classes, thus developing a personality that correlates with social status” (Preston 51). In broader sense, the educational system serve to provide hindrances to established prospects as defined by various lobby groups and later provided by the law as avenues of social mobility provision.

Furthermore, teachers might have anticipations of children’s knowledge pertaining to a particular social class. As Preston argues, “…Children form high class families are sometimes viewed as being more intelligent than those from lower social classes” (72). In the light that children from low class families, have no much difference in IQ score with their counterparts from high class families, evidence gap makes the perception that high class children are smarter than low class families.

The perception thus becomes more of a stereotypic line of thought with no grounds. The idea of differentiating people along the social class lines, though hard to wipe out from the society, serves to disadvantage rather than advantage the society by allowing social class stereotypes to penetrate into schools and workplaces, later to leave unforgettable marks.

Works Cited

Chen, Wenhong. Doing business at home and away: Policy Implications of Chinese-Canadian Entrepreneurship, 2007. Web.

Fernando, San. Race and the City: Chinese-Canadian and Chinese- American Political Mobilization, 2006. Web.

Itsin, Catherine & Newman, Janet. Gender, Culture and Organizational Change: Putting theory into practice, 1995. Web.

Kane, Jean. Social Class, Gender and Exclusion from School, 2011. Web.

Lawton, David. Social Class, Language and Education, 1968. Web.

Mendes, Elizabeth, and Srighanthan, Sarah. Confronting Discrimination and Inequality in China-Chinese and Canadian Perspectives, 2009. Web.

Ng, Wing. The Chinese in Vancouver, 1945-80 the Pursuit of Identity and Power, 1999. Web.

Nelson, Robert. Legalizing Gender Inequality Courts, Markets, and Unequal Pay for Women in America, 1999. Web.

Ossowski, Stanislaw. Class Structure in the Social Consciousness: Translated from the Polish by Sheilapatterson, 1998. Web.

Preston, John. Whiteness and Class in Education, 2007. Web.

Standing Committee on the Status of Women. Towards Gender Responsive Budgeting. Rising to the Challenge of Achieving Gender Equality: Report of the Standing Committee on the Status of Women, 2008. Web.

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