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East Asia Civilization Essay


The historical terms

Hong Xiuquan

In religious groups of the ninetieth century, Hong Xiuguan instituted Taiping divine empire through offering religious guidance and planning fortified revolt against the reign of Qing. In fact, Hong Xiuguan was the Christian evangelical leader in China (Feigon 1). He was an important figure in that he became the community educator for more than five years after failing to pass the regal tests.

Xiuguan acknowledged gods as evil spirits, Jesus as his elderly brother, and God as the esteemed minister. This made him effect baptism and the demolition of craven statues to get on with the preaching work and spiritually guide the public.

A part from initiation and monotheism, Xiuguan made his followers keep strict daybreak, nightfall prayers, and refinement, acknowledge spiritual cremation of papers with confessed sins, and eating sacrificed animals in revelry of New Year, matrimony, and funerals. Xiuguan dedicated much of his time praying for tranquility by observing stringent rules and offering ethical coaching in his palace (Spence 52).

Russo-Japanese War

This war was a tragedy for Russia in martial and sanity although it showed up in countries living in the historic glories and constant tribulations accruing from increased business and farming. The conflict that was to generate a break up between Nicholas and his community came about though it hardly led to the impulsive outburst of loyalty as planned (Steinberg 3).

The civic had slight war eagerness, but the novel political parties saw no validation for the warfare thus making societal democrats’ to incite wallop in industrial units, revolutionists organizing terror campaign, and liberals limiting vocal objections and appeals. The war indicated the capture and demolition of the Russians nautical force in Far East, and when the information reached St. Petersburg and Moscow, additional social turmoil that stimulated the disastrous martial campaign and oppression occurred.

Nevertheless, the resultant meeting of Zemstvo national conference that Nicholas condemned called for civil rights, freedom of press, freedom of person, and freedom of speech (Jukes 2008). The war led to the creation of trade unions and revolutions that saw more than two hundred protestors killed while singing patriotic songs parading towards the Palace of Winter.

Tonghak Rebellion

Lee (1963) claims that this social and native group arose from the resentment of overseas missionaries on Christianity and patrician class compulsion that integrated the features of Taoism nurturing force, individual God to resist western education, primeval character of Shamanism, principles of Confucianism, and the intercession of Buddhism. Its effects from the design of parity and self-esteem influenced potential autonomous movements, which led to victory in the original rebellion that resulted into terror and seeking aid from the court of Japan and China to end the warfare as well as bring colonization of Korea by Japan.

This society was recognized leading to capture and execution of Ch’oe’s that later established flourishing church association which shaped the order of leadership and parishes. The rebellion grew all over making it possible for Chon Pong-Chun to take actions that hardly favored fraudulent administrators.

When the faction ordered for armaments, there was panic in the government and the administration requested the armed forces to end the cessation of hostilities. Hence, the inability to suppress the fight from Tonghak peasant militia, forced Japan and China to rival Korea for superiority.

The effects and causes of Korean War

In the wake of the mid 1950, the warfare in Korea instigated and lasted for three years prior to the declaration of ceasefire. Assets were immensely damaged, and terminal deaths were reported to be over three million. The United States and the Soviet Union backed the two admonition states of South and North Korea.

The original cause of the conflict was extremely inherent in the two powerful countries. Korea has since stayed a unified nation from the seventh century, although Japan took fractions of Korea following the Sino-Japanese battle that occurred from 1894 to1895. In anticipation of the Second World War, Korea remained under the Japanese colony after being conquered in 1910.

The Soviet Union launched a communist status dubbed the Democratic Republic of People after captivating more than half of northern Korea. This was under Kim-II-Sung, and it occurred subsequent to Japan giving up in World War II. The U.S. took control of the southern half of Korea Republic starting from Tokyo (Lee 18).

The causes

The boundary between the battle regions had physical latitude of thirty-eight degrees to the north. The U.S tried to eliminate the Soviet Union from the accord set on intensifying communism, but this was burdened with nervousness. Another cause came in the year 1948 when the communists in each face of the thirty-eighth analogous meeting casted off the suggestion on liberated election (Lee 23). However, the United Nations struggled to ensure an open ballot vote took place in Korea.

However, Kim-II-Sung fashioned a Stalinist administration hoarded with Russian armaments, reservoirs and the Army of North Korean People. The United States, however, supported the first regime supervised by Rhee Syngman since the political state of affairs in South Korea was disorganized. In anticipation of June 1950 besides the thirty-eighth analogous meeting, progressive menacing battles persisted pending South Korea’s incursion by North Korean People’s Army.

The nature of the war

The U.S. required intercession from the United Nation Security Council in the course of unmanageable assaults from the North to trademark the North Korea as an antagonist. Britain was one of the Security Council associate states to hurry to the charitable trust of South Korea.

It mutually propelled commonwealth navies together with a number of their Far East Fleets to Korea (Weathersby 91). When the Australian and the Britain backups started to enter Korea, the eighth United States Army guided by General Walker Walton in Korea disillusioned the North Korean People’s Army. It was then when the Army of North Korean People intentionally headed to the docks of Pusan, a very important harbor in South Korea.

In the tilt region of the Korean peninsula, the United Nation was positioned in a boundary called Pusan Perimeter to defy constant assault from Pohang, Masan, and Daegu. They enforced the attacking North Korean People’s Army to reverse to the north after the incarceration of vulnerable port of Inchon in mid September. The United Nations Army nearness to the Manchurian was a dread to the Chinese and a signal that they would mediate to protect their terrain.

The United Nation horde struggled to fit the capital of South Korea in south Seoul after the Chinese molestation in November. Nonetheless, the United Nation triumphantly drove the Army of North Korean People to the north of thirty- eighth analogous point in May 1951 having survived the spring of distasteful operations from China.

In 1953, a declaration of armistice occurred amid the serenity talks. Both the defense forces went on the odious intent not allowing the other party to manage the tactical regions rather than a different invasion on the adversary territory (Lee 52).

The effects

Both faces of the battling parties had numerous fatalities, yet the number of deaths is not certain. However, there was hostility between the Soviet Union and the United States fashioned by the Korean warfare. Besides, there was a break up between families that lived in each of the regional boundaries.

The experienced antagonism involving the United States and China lasted for decades afterward. It assured the United States of America of the attentive nature of the declining domino result of socialism. Thousands of American troops were situated in South Korea owing to its ideal position as a martial pedestal for the United States (Weathersby 92).

Conversely, failure to sign a written accord subsequent to 1953 peace agreement and the incapacity of South and North Korea to resolve their disparities implied that they had to be ready for state skirmishes. The United States, China, Japan, and South Korea had to stay in their projectile array after North Korea conducted numerous ballistic rocket experiments and a contentious nuclear ordeal.

In the recent past, North Korea became a renowned poverty-stricken country with martial rule while South Korea is the main financial power. The North Korean supreme leader, Kim Jong-II and the President of South Korea, Moo-hyun Roh signed an eight-point accord in early October 2007 (Steinberg 2008).

Thus, the two countries decided on the regeneration of train services, thoroughfare, and air, ambassadorial talks, financial corporations, and enduring peace programs. The parties are optimistic that these suggestions will rise to the confederacy of South and North Korea.

Factors leading to the decline of Qing China Dynasty

The racial Manchu leaders ruled the Qing Dynasty of China for quite some time. The reign only ended at the beginning of the twentieth century, but started in 1644 CE in the middle of the kingdom. The empire was a recognized mighty dynasty, but collapsed and ushered in the current Chinese era. In fact, Qing Dynasty of China fell gradually in the early 20th century and the middle years of the 19th century because of a multifaceted interaction between external and internal factors.

Internal factors

Whereas immense pressure ensuing from the outside forces damaged the territory and sovereignty of Qing China Dynasty, the mighty empire scrambled and collapsed from inside. The average Chinese called Han believed that the Manchus from the north who were the Qing leaders deserved little loyalty.

Despite being few, the Manchus, a race that conquered China benefited from dominant political influence. However, late in the nineteenth century, the leadership of Manchu lost its capability. This gave rise to the catastrophic opium wars, which proved that the reigning Qing Empire lost its Heaven Mandates and ought to be brought down or conquered.

Cixi Dowager who was the Qing empress responded by getting tough on those who seek for reforms. Instead of renovating the homeland as well as practicing the Meiji reinstallation path as republic Japan executed, Dowager opted to clean the pacesetters’ courtyard (Zhang 156).

Inefficient emperors in the Qing Empire caused the administrative arm of the government to be unproductive. The emperor failed to supervise government officials making them very incompetent. The political structure had effects that discouraged the energetic action of the government. The state officials extorted money from the ordinary people while the level of corruption was serious in the Qing Dynasty.

The state imposed heavy taxes on Chinese whereas most government officials received gifts from the low ranked officers. This resulted into economic suffering. Besides, the Qing Empire of China was political decentralized. The politics were demoralized and corrupt making it difficult to centralize the political power in Peking.

Decentralization in politics started to grow seriously from the 1851 to 1864 Taiping Rebellion (Zhang 158). Thus, the Peking control proved to be very unsuccessful justifying the reasons why in the fiscal 1911, the Qing Dynasty provinces were declared sovereign.

The economic and social factors such as poor economic state, social poverty, and population growth rate contributed to the collapse of the Qing Empire of China. In fact, China was a peaceful state and Qing Dynasty enhanced the population growth rate. However, land that could be cultivated was limited since the powerful lords in Qing Dynasty grabbed large pieces of land.

The empire did not facilitate industrial development to create jobs and absorb excess labor. Instead, the Qing Dynasty enacted laws to bar individuals from moving to places outside including Manchuria. Lack of jobs coupled with the growing population meant low living standards and grater social poverty. To solve the ensuing financial problems, the rulers in Qing Dynasty opted to sell most offices and increased the state charged taxes.

These increased the level of corruption, rebellion, and social suffering. The Chinese military lacked cooperation and suffered from administrative inefficiency (Harding 122). Most combatants suffered due to food shortages and opted to deprive innocent people besides causing auxiliary societal anarchies. Manchus slowly lost the spirit to fight and in the 19th century making, all military troops become useless.

External factors

Qing Dynasty had some external factors that led to its collapse in 1911. Prior to 19th century, foreign imperialism had not reached China. Thus, its entry into China enhanced the collapse of the Qing Empire. For instance, the foreigners defeated the Qing administration and imposed imbalanced treaties on the empire.

The Chinese national rights were politically violated causing the Qing Empire to mislay its political power and repute. Given that China became puny, the command from abroad successfully invaded assorted homelands, which regularly indebted china faithfulness. The homeland citizens included the Koreans, Annam’s, and the Islet of Ryukyu.

In late nineteenth century, foreign imperialism reached its highest peak, and most China territories were divided into different influential spheres. The Qing administration became completely powerless to resist most of these foreign pressures. In the early 20th century and late 19th century, other nations led by Europe extended their influence to other territories including Africa and Asia (Harding 125). Therefore, they pressurized the grand China also known as the time-honored East Asia superpower.

Between 1839 and 1842, and from 1856 to 1860, the opium wars occurred causing the most destructive impact on the Qing Empire. After these wars, China emerged defeated and the British Empire conquered Hong Kong by enforcing unequal treaties on the inhabitants of China. The disgrace exposed the vulnerability and weaknesses of the once-powerful China to all its tributaries and neighbors. The exposure of China’s weaknesses made the nation begin losing its influence over marginal regions.

For instance, Taiwanese and Koreans were managed by the Japanese, which similarly forced unwarranted commerce burdens in the Shimonoseki’s pact of the financial year 1895. Conversely, France created the French Indochina colony after seizing Southeast Asia.

Other foreign powers namely Japan, Russia, Germany, France, and Britain also established their influential spheres along the Qing China’s coast by 1900. These foreign powers managed to control the Qing Dynasty’s military and trade. However, Puyi, the last emperor managed to overthrow the imperial China and end the Qing Dynasty in the fiscal 1912 (Harding 132).

Works Cited

Feigon, Nathan. “Hong Xiuquan.” Britannica Biographies, 2012: 1-2. Print.

Harding, Harry. “How the Past Shapes the Present: Five Ways in Which History Affects China’s Contemporary Foreign Relations.” Journal of American-East Asian Relations, 16.1/2 (2009): 119-134. Print.

Jukes, Geoffrey. The Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2002. Print.

Lee, Chŏng-sik.The Politics of Korean Nationalism, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1963. Print.

Spence, Jonathan. God’s Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuqua, New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 1997. Print.

Steinberg, John. “Was the Russo-Japanese War World War Zero?” Russian Review, 67.1 (2008): 1-7. Print.

Weathersby, Kathryn. “The Korean War Revisited.” Wilson Quarterly, 23.3 (1999): 91-96. Print.

Zhang, Zhan. “Cixi and Modernization of China.” Asian Social Science, 6.4 (2010): 154-159. Print.

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