El Nino is a massive climate phenomenon that has been known to the world for years. Many scientists have been exploring the phenomenon as it tends to create a significant impact on the Pacific area. El Nino affects the weather on the continents, sea life, the shore lines, the animals living along the coast and feeding on fish, it affects people and food supplies, it even influences the prices for meat in the world.
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El Nino makes the winds of the east blow to the west and moves the layers of warm water in the Pacific Ocean. This creates much higher temperatures and deeper waters in some of the territories. Such changes influence the processes that happen underwater and break the normal circle of life. The ecosystems start to malfunction and sea life density changes.
Some of the species of fish and seaweed are unable to survive in warm water, this is why the fish migrate to areas with colder water or move deeper into the sea. Some of them die because the colder areas turn out to be unsuitable for life. This change leaves many species of birds and animals that live along the coast without food. Besides, the increasing level of water washes away and floods the birds’ nests at the coastline. People suffer from El Nino too. For example, In 1970s the anchovy industry in Peru suffered great losses because of the effects of El Nino. The population of anchovies decreased massively.
The scientists work on weather forecasts that would be able to predict the strength and intensity of El Nino each year in order to be prepared for the consequences.
Recently the researchers discovered that the global climate change may influence El Nino. The warming in the tropical areas may result in the occurrence of El Nino at the shores of Eastern Australia much more often. There is also another way of the development of climatic changes. The scientists anticipate the decrease of water exchange between the atmosphere and the oceans after the warming. As a result, the level of the tropical uprising convection will become lower. Since convection is the effect that serves as the source of winds, the decreasing convection will also reduce some of the winds around the area.
According to the opinion of the experts from the Bureau of Meteorology, the winds that will be affected by this phenomenon the most are tropical east-to-west winds.
The phenomenon of El Nino has a big influence on multiple ecosystems and spheres of human life. The strength of the phenomenon varies from year to year, which causes different consequences. When El Nino reaches its higher levels of intensity, many species of fish and animals face serious difficulties and struggle to survive in their areas of habitat. People and industries become influenced too. When fish supplies lessen, the prices for other sources of food such as livestock and poultry start to grow. This is why the phenomenon of El Nino is so important and its patterns are being studied by many scientists all around the world.
The problem of coastal erosion is a natural disaster that has created many issues for the population dwelling at the shore lines in many countries. The laws of physics and natural phenomena have been making destructive influence on the coasts throughout the history. Today this issue is much bigger and the destruction develops rapidly due to the impacts of the technological progress. The natural barriers such as wetlands, systems of marsh and islands have been reduced or destroyed by the human intrusion.
As a result, the coast lines and the population dwelling on them are exposed to dangerous natural phenomena such as hurricanes, strong winds and tropical storms. When the wetlands and vast marsh systems are in place, they act as buffers. They create natural protection of coast lines by means of absorbing the storms so that the remains of the phenomena that reach the land are much weaker and not as dangerous. These days coastal Louisiana is facing a disaster. The groups of people with lower income that dwell along the shores have no protection from the destructive influences of nature. The homes of these citizens are under a threat of being flooded and ruined. The coastal erosion may leave many people homeless. Besides, it may also become the reason of poverty because the natural barriers such as wetlands serve as homes for various fisheries. The reduction of wetlands endangers the sea life and creates a risk of poverty for the people living at the coast lines because the main industry providing them with food and income is fishing.
Coastal Louisiana is now in the critical situation. The residents there need protection and restoration. This issue has been existent for decades, yet the Congress never found the finances to solve this problem. Today the people of coastal Louisiana are running out of time.
Such issues are observed all over the world. The coastal erosion in Pakistan is reaching scary levels under the influence of global climate change and the impacts of human-inflicted consequences. The International Union of Conservation of Nature is taking big efforts in order to help protect the coast lines in Pakistan and create better life conditions for communities living along the shore lines.
The programs designed to find the solution to this problem work by means of the development of practical knowledge about the global changes in climate, they focus on ways of adaptation of population under the occurring circumstances. Besides, the program is also going to be directed at restoring the ecosystems that suffered from the sea level rise and erosion.
In the contemporary world such issues as flooding, sea level rise, climate change and coastal erosion serve as the causes of poverty in the communities living along the shore lines, especially in the developing countries. In order to solve the problem various educational and protective policies need to be developed and employed, the process of restoration will require financing; this is why the attention of the masses needs to be attracted to this issue. The problem of the coastline erosion will be highlighted in a report to the country leaders.
In our globalising world the problems of environment are highly important and often discussed. A clever promotion of the most important issues will be effective and will serve as the starting point for the development of all the measures needed to help the communities that are facing trouble, one of such measures is planting mangroves along the shore lines. The trees hold the ground together and slow down the process of erosion. A proper approach to this problem can help to save thousands of people.