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Environmental estrogen is the scholarly nomenclature that refers to any group of artificial substances that exist in the environment. If and when they get into the system of a human being, they function in a closely related way to estrogen, which generally refers to sex hormones in the female species. They are also called environmental hormones. They are known to interfere with the normal hormonal secretion and also mess up with the assimilation of food, which in turn damages reproductive activities.
Consequences of Ozone Depletion and Acid Rain
Depletion of the ozone layer has consequences. Chief among these are the skin cancer menace due to ultraviolet radiation, which is absorbed by DNA. Others include a high rate of lung related diseases and eye cataracts, which can cause blindness. Depletion is also known to decrease crop yields and also causes disruption of the balance in ecology in the oceans.
Acid rains, on the other hand, cause damage to structures like buildings. The rains are known to corrode marble and metals, cause respiratory diseases in human beings and increase the acidity of the soil. Acid rains also make lakes acidic and thus affecting the ecology of such areas.
Food Chain Contamination
This refers to the process by which contaminants find their way to the environment. Such contaminants include chemicals, metals like lead, among others. For instance, directing effluence to lakes will contaminate fish, which is taken as food by the surrounding population, affecting their health.
Sources and Types of Water Pollution
There are three types of water pollution. These include point-source pollution, nonpoint-source pollution, and transboundary pollution. Point-source pollution, as the name suggests, is caused when pollution originates at a certain point. Pollution caused by the oil spill is, for instance, point-source pollution. Nonpoint-source is caused by many types of pollution affecting water in the same locality. Transboundary pollution affects the environment distances away from the origin. Sources can either be classified as direct or indirect. Examples of direct include waste from factories. Indirect would include seepage of chemicals like fertilizers.
This refers to a type of energy that travels through space. It belongs to a class of radiation called electromagnetic radiation. Others in this class include light and heat. To distinguish each of the radiations, the issue of wavelength vis-à-vis the energy comes to play. Ultraviolet radiation is more energetic with an equally short wavelength. The sun is the chief source of ultraviolet radiation/rays.
Details of the Last Ice Age and Warming Period
The last ice age took place over ten thousand years ago. Before then, ice-covered around one-third of the earth’s surface. During the initial ice age, the earth warmed up and what followed was the melting of ice. This lead to the formation of glaciers as sheets of ice covered valleys and rivers. In the last ice age, the sheets melted, and this left lakes. Ice that remained can only be found on top of mountains. The warming period, also known as the interglacial periods, are the periods between ice ages. They last between 15,000 and 20,000 years. In other words, we are in a warming period.
These are factors that influence the climate. They include wind patterns, topography, latitude, and angle of the sun rays and surface of the earth, among others.