Introduction: Evian & Aquafina
One of the most important aspects of effective marketing strategies is the productive implementation of the basic principles of a competitive product into operation. The effectiveness of the brand depends directly on the product’s unique characteristics and application of cultural, gender, and social roles into the product’s image, advertising, positioning, and packaging. The products under consideration are two different brands of mineral water such as Evian and Aquafina.
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Concept of Stimulus Discrimination
The water Aquafina seems to be produced for population that cannot afford luxurious brands of water and is not ready to pay more for a brand name of the product. However, the concept of luxury goods as they appeared has been recently shifted so that those goods were more accessible to a wider category of population. As reported by Britt (2006), this shift become a challenge for marketers because it changed the role of the luxury products and brands and shifted the position of companies that were in the market of easily accessible products and those called luxurious.
Product unique characteristics
The brand of water called Aquafina has a few characteristics that distinguish this product as the one that lies under the same category of goods as luxurious ones. In other words, the brand of water Aquafina has characteristics that are not likely to make it more recognisable at store shelves standing near other products of the same category. Moreover, the study by Alvarez and Rodolfo (2008) shows that consumers have certain preferences concerning products with low price or established by a well-known brand (26).
This water comes from public sources and is distinguished from the water from the tap by purification procedure underwent before distributing it to bottles. One of the most important aspects about Aquafina water brand is that is comes as the one produced under the PepsiCo brand.
The company PepsiCo has defined their products through putting the note about the source of the water and all people that consume this product are aware of its origin.
Concept of Stimulus Generalisation
Evian is the brand of water that is positioned as luxurious and rather expensive one. The water comes as a product established for people. Effective advertising and brand image promote rather a lifestyle than a product itself. In this respect, one of the most important aspects in the strategic positioning of Evian water is that is introduced as the one that enables consumers to ‘live young life’.
One of the most important elements of effective promotion is good packaging. The study by Ampuero and Vila (2006) shows that before deciding on the packaging, there are seven characteristics to consider: status, economic price, safety, elegance, country of origin, high price, and noble principles (104). Thus, Evian is positioned as a brand that is original and has a definite target audience and certain features that are typical of all products of this brand. The study by Foscht and others (2008) makes us aware of the fact that Evian demonstrates a characteristic that narrows the target audience to women and those who prefer collectivistic approach rather than individual one.
One of the most attractive elements of packaging is the shape of the bottle that seems to repeat the shape of the mountain. This fact makes people believe that it comes from mineral sources.
The brand image of Evian suggests that it is designed as product to improve your health and to keep you in the right shape though it is not positioned as some diet water. One of the prominent characteristics of Evian water is the colour image of the bottle that attracts people due to its original colour not typical of this product.
The origin of the product matters for a broad category of people. As reported by Agrawal and Kamakura (1999), the concept of origin is largely addressed by consumers before making the final decision on the brand to prefer and on the product to choose. However, for some people other factors are more influential than the country of origin meaning patriotic approach and a desire to support a domestic producer. Nevertheless, there are enough consumers who prefer products produced by foreign companies and brands. The same concerns people that prefer Evian water because it is delivered from sources of mineral water in French Alps. In this respect, Aquafina is the purified water from public sources whereas Evian is the water that comes from naturally pure sources.
The difference between these two brands is that Evian is positioned as a universal product for a specific audience with certain lifestyle, values, beliefs, and preferences whereas Aquafina is the water that has a large brand extension including products that go under the same label such as different low-calorie beverages and purified water.
Culture Impact: Evian & Aquafina
One of the important aspects that should be mentioned while comparing and contrasting the brands of Evian and Aquafina water is that these products have different brand images, price category, and target audience which arises no or little competition between companies that own those brands. For instance, brand image, as reported by Lahiri and Gupta (2009), is an integral part of every product as it is very important to appeal to customers and make them store a certain image associated with a specific product. To sum up, brands of water can be very similar but Evian positions itself as the one for communities, women, and those who want to live a young life whereas Aquafina is aimed at energetic males who got used to individual approach and a stiff competition.
Agrawal, Jagdish, and Wagner A. Kamakura. “Country of Origin: A Competitive Advantage?” International Journal of Research in Marketing 16 (1999): 255–267.
Alvarez, Begona Alvarez, and Rodolfo Vazquez Casielles. “Effects of Price Decisions on Product Categories and Brands.” Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 20, no. 1 (2008): 23-43.
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Ampuero, Olga, and Natalia Vila. “Consumer Perceptions of Product Packaging.” Journal of Consumer Marketing 23, no. 2 (2006): 102–114.
Britt, Bill. “Luxury Gap.” Marketing, 2006, 28-31. Web.
Foscht, Thomas, and others. “The Impact of Culture on Brand Perceptions: A Six-Nation Study.” The Journal of Product and Brand Management 17, no. 3 (2008): 131+. Web.
Lahiri, Isita, and Amitava Gupta. “Dilution of Brand Extensions: A Study.” International Journal of Commerce and Management 19, no. 1 (2009): 45-57. Web.