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Water Scarcity as a Global Issue: Causes and Solutions Essay

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Updated: Apr 21st, 2019


There is a global water crisis due to global warming, pollution, and overpopulation. The has resulted in shortage of potable water for human consumption. More than 2 billion people in the world do not have access to fresh water. Global warming speeds up melting of polar ice and glaciers.

On the other hand, overpopulation increases demand and consumption of potable water. Global warming can be stopped by reducing carbon emissions and stopping deforestation. Overpopulation can be solved through education and family planning.

Pakistan is an example of a country that is experiencing a severe water crisis. Solutions to the crisis include development of reservoirs and management of available sources. In order to solve the global water crisis, it is important to reduce global warming and manage population growth.


Water crisis is a global issue that affects many countries. It occurs when potable water is unavailable to fulfill the demands of the population in a given region or country. Research indicates that the problem affects more than 2.8 billion people in the world.

According to a report released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), many countries experience water scarcity due to poor management of available water resources (Maestu, 2013). Growing demand for water and the consequent depletion of available resources are major factors that contribute towards unavailability of clean water in many countries.

Causes of water crisis

Common causes of water scarcity include overpopulation e in regions that have limited water resources, global warming, destruction of water catchment areas by human activities, and pollution of water sources (Maestu, 2013). Global warming and overpopulation are the most common and severe causes of water scarcity.

Global warming

Global warming has adverse effects on availability of freshwater for human consumption. It increases the rate at which glaciers melt, thus speeding up the depletion of water sources (Maestu, 2013). Glaciers play an important role as water sources. For example, the Himalayan glaciers act as potent sources of water for rivers in India, Southeast Asia, and China.

Disappearance of glaciers results in ecological catastrophes that cause serious water shortages. On the other hand, global warming contributes towards melting of polar ice, which releases potable water into seas that contain salty water (Maestu, 2013).

However, this has little effect on supply of fresh water. Global warming increases the level of water quantity that the atmosphere can hold. This causes heavy rainfall that results in fast movement of water through the hydrological cycle.

Solutions to global warming

Solutions to global warming include reduction of emissions and eradication of deforestation (Maestu, 2013). Some gases released into the atmosphere absorb and retain heat thus increasing global temperatures. Reducing carbon emissions is important in order to reduce global warming.

Deforestation increases the quantity of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere because trees play a vital role in absorption of carbon dioxide. Therefore, it is important to stop deforestation in order to promote removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Finally, it is also important to embrace alternative sources of energy such as wind and solar energy that have no emissions (Maestu, 2013).


Another cause of the global water crisis is overpopulation. Overpopulation increases consumption of available fresh water sources (Maestu, 2013). As the population grows, demand increases. The problem is worsened by depletion of available water sources without replenishment.

Overpopulation also increases human activities that cause water pollution. Water pollution increases the scarcity of potable water (Maestu, 2013). For example, a high population increases demand for food supplies. High demand increases activities such as cultivation and farming that contribute towards pollution of water sources.

Solutions to overpopulation

Solutions to overpopulation include family planning, education, and establishment of government policies (Maestu, 2013). People should be educated on the consequences of having many children on their future sustainability.

In addition, married couples should be taught how to use family planning methods to manage the sizes of their families. Finally, the government should enact policies and give incentives that control the number of children that couples bear in order to prevent overpopulation.

Water crises in Pakistan

Pakistan is experiencing a severe water crisis. Causes of the crisis include bad irrigation systems, water wastage, and bad management practices. The solution to the water crisis in Pakistan comprises two aspects that include water development and water management (Maestu, 2013). The government should construct dams in order to store more water for domestic use and irrigation.

In addition, development of a water management strategy is important in order to reduce water wastage. Water scarcity is caused by several factors that include leakages, infiltration, and seepages. People should be educated about the consequences of wasting water as well as the benefits of conserving water (Maestu, 2013).

Pakistan should embrace modern methods of irrigation such as drip irrigation that will reduce wastage. The rotation based irrigation system used in the country should be replaced with a more efficient system that promotes conservation of water (Maestu, 2013).


The global water crisis has affected many people around the world. It has reduced the amount of potable water available for human consumption. Major causes of the crisis include global warming and overpopulation. Pakistan is experiencing a severe water crisis because of its poor irrigation system and water conservation practices.

The country is suffering despite the fact that is has access to several water resources. Solutions to the crisis include reducing global warming and controlling population growth. It is important to conserve the environment because its destruction will aggravate the problem.


Maestu, J. (2013). Water Trading and Global Water Scarcity: International Experiences. New York: Routledge.

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