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Scientists develop various approaches to reduce the number of antibiotics to treat mastitis in food-producing animals, and the idea to discover the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles as eco-friendly technologies through a laboratory experiment attracts attention. The main gap in the chosen type of investigation is the inability to identify all reactions and potential threats due to the lack of well-developed projects. This study focuses on the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) synthesis and the potential of latex in different plants like Jatropha curcas or Euphorbia lacteal against mastitis and the production of the necessary bacteria.
UV-visible spectroscopy, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDEX), and particle size and zeta potential analysis were used to discuss the characterization of GNPs. Various investigations, including the Kirby-Bauer method, Bergey’s Manual microbial tests, and the membrane leakage assay, showed that the plant producing milky latex had a lower medical potential for GNP synthesis in comparison to the plant producing clear latex (ARTICLE).
Such results were explained by high calcium and protein levels in the milky latex plants. Different types of plants had specific reactions depending on the conditions under which they were tested. The gram-positive and negative organisms varied in their possibility to change the structure of cells: GNPs destroyed respiratory chain dehydrogenizes and other functions of cells in gram-negative bacteria (ARTICLE). In general, synthesized GNPs were proved to have a strong potential for veterinary biological applications and the reduction of harmful antibiotics in mastitis treatment.
The major goal of this study is to identify and compare the synthesized GNPs, latex-producing plants, and their potential for being used as eco-friendly pharmaceuticals with anti-mastitis activities. It is expected to discuss the peculiarities of the synthesis of several plant latex types to destroy mastitis causing microorganisms. The analysis of a synthesis process should be organized by such variables time, inhibitory actions, and overall outcomes.
The data is useful to achieve all the aims due to its various methods to isolate microorganisms and determine the effects of GNPs. The laboratory experiment is appropriate to explain the qualities of all organisms and their reactions in microbial settings. Clear conclusions may be drawn to support the hypothesis and prove the worth of GNPs in dealing with mastitis infections.
Data and Findings
No reagents have recently been introduced in studies, and there is a need to make fast and correct decisions. Nanoparticles can be made from different liquids and solids with the only important requirement – to be environmentally friendly. It may be achieved as a result of a green environment benevolent process the outcomes of which are hard to predict because of its biological nature (Smitha et al. 2009). Each isolated culture was thoroughly checked for enzyme production, proving the high quality of the chosen approach. The presentation of each experiment, including the period of isolation, the change of colors, and final results, helps to understand the worth of each action taken, and each conclusion made.
Scientific Interpretation and Novelty
The interpretation of findings is clear (the presence of figures and images) and valid in the study. The authors used the opinions and investigations of different researchers. For example, the properties of antimicrobial organisms were discussed within the frames of the work by Mollazadeh-Moghaddam et al. (2011). The inhibition of enzymes was developed in the study by Mubarak et al. (2011). The peculiar feature of this article is that the authors combine the already made findings with their observations to strengthen the outcomes.
This laboratory experiment includes the use of chemicals and reagents that were produced at SDFCL and HiMedia, the two Indian leading bio scientific manufacturers. The collection and identification of plants for research were divided into several stages to make sure all of them are latex bearing by their nature, and no errors occur during the investigation. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was developed to explain the way of bacterial strain isolation, microorganism identification, and GNP affect identification. However, the lack of sufficient details about the essence of this approach may prevent the readers from repeating the experiment.
Relation to the Literature
Due to their multiple biomedical applications, nanoparticles turn out to be frequent topics for discussion in modern studies. For example, their distinctive physicochemical characteristics make them able to participate in different forms of synthesis and become good antimicrobials for medical purposes (Kim et al. 2007). Plant resources exploitation has recently been introduced as a new way to synthesize nanoparticles (Armendariz et al. 2004; Chandran et al. 2006). There is a need to unit nanoparticles with plants to develop a modern and eco-friendly component to treat animals and predict mastitis problems.
Conclusions and Future Implications
Milk production is one of the most popular and profitable industries in India. Being a significant part of occupation in rural areas, dairying turns out to be a serious problem for many Indians due to a fast spread of mastitis and the inability to control all infections in cattle. The synthesized GNPs create a good perspective to remove antibiotics from treatment against mastitis in animals. Still, the lack of details in the study, and rare reports on gram-positive organisms, further research on the connection between GNPs and enzymes was recommended.
The creation of units with clear descriptions of experiments, images, and figures makes this project interesting and educative. It can be a solid background for future investigations and contributions to the dairy industry in India. However, no clarity in terminology and the lack of connections between sections decrease the worthiness of this article for a journal. More improvements are necessary to strengthen the overall presentation of the article to make it readable for all people.
‘Synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles by using plant latex and their potential against the mastitis-causing microorganisms’ Armendariz, V, Herrera, I, Peralta-Videa, JR, Jose-Yacaman, M, Troiani, H, Santiago, P & Gardea-Torresdey, JL 2004, ‘Size controlled gold nanoparticle formation by avena sativa biomass: use of plants in nanobiotechnology’, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 377-382.
Chandran, SP, Chaudhary, M, Pasricha, R, Ahmad, A & Sastry, M 2006, ‘Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using aloe vera plant extract’, Biotechnology Progress, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 577-583.
Kim, JS, Kuk, E, Yu, KN, Kim, JH, Park, SJ, Lee, HJ, Kim, SH, Park, YK, Park, YH, Huwang, CY, Kim, YK, Lee, YS, Jeong, DH & Cho, MH 2007, ‘Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles’, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 95–101.
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Mollazadeh-Moghaddam, K, Moradi, BV, Dolatabadi-Bazaz, R, Shakibae, M & Shahverdi, AR 2011, ‘An enhancing effect of gold nanoparticles on the lethal action of 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation in microwave oven’, Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 195-200.
Mubarak, AD, Thajuddin, N, Jeganathan, K, & Gunasekaran, M 2011, ‘Plant extract mediated synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity against clinically isolated pathogens’, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 360–365.
Smitha, SL, Philip, D & Gopchandran, KG 2009, ‘Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth’, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 735-739.