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Ancient Greek Civilization History Research Paper



Greek history is very rich. This paper looks at definitions and significance of terms and names used in Greek history. They include: Dark Age, funeral games, hector, Archilochus, Ionia History, Helots, Cleisthenes and Sacred disease.

Dark Age is the period in Greek history between 1200 BC and 800 BC. During this period, the Greek generations passed on tales from the poems of Homer.

It is believed that Homer was blind and hence the name “dark age.” The Dark Age symbolizes the fall of civilization. In this duration, there was famine, little trade with foreigners and the Greek language was not used. The Dark Age ended when the Greeks began writing (McInerney 17).

Funeral games are held in ancient Greek to respect the departed. Patroclus in the Iliad received such honor. Achilles, Patroclus’ friend initiated games which included chariot-race, fighting, wrestling. These games inspired individuals to be the best at all times and this is because the funeral games were performed only for heroes (Latacz 50)

Hector was a dedicated and courageous warrior from ancient Troy. He signified heroism in the Greek civilization. He fought selflessly for the Greek people. Moreover Hector does not demonstrate pride; he accepted advice from his wife and bid them goodbye. He was a responsible person who took care of his family and worked as a warrior (McInerney 18)

Archilochus is a known poet in ancient Greek. He attempted to put together literature styles in Greek and also wrote several poems. In his writing he said much about the kind of rule seen in Greece. He often criticized tyranny in his poems.

Ionia was an un-unified state of the Greeks dominated by Ionian tribe. It was established by the colonialist along the coastal strip of eastern Greek. It is associated with the development of art. There was an established school that taught and focused on both Greek and non- Greek art. This stimulated trade between the Greek and the neighboring communities (McInerney 57).

History of Greek in the 5th century was marked by the Persian war. In this century, there were inventions such as anchor with flukes. Shear legs cast iron and linear perspective began to be used. Furthermore it is during this time when the Book of Law was written by Li Kui a Chinese philosopher (McInerney 57). Significant figures such as Buddha and Confucius lived at this time.

Helots were citizens of Greek and most of them lived in Sparta and were neither in slavery nor free. They were mainly farmers and represented a majority of the population. They held festivals and traditional ceremonies (Latacz 6).

Cleisthenes was an Athenian leader who came from a noble family. He contributed to the change in the constitution and brought reforms in Athens. In addition Cleisthenes advocated for democracy. He criticized the government for tyranny and as a result, he is considered the father of democracy in Greek (Latacz 13)

Sacred disease refers to epilepsy. York and Steinberg (1) point out that people believed that sacred disease came about because the Gods had been aggrieved. There was an argument to establish whether it was a disease from a natural or supernatural cause.

Herodotus believed that it could have been a somatic disease. Today archeologists suggest that it was a medical cause. However, there was no agreement on what the cause of madness was.


In the Greek civilization, poetry played a big role in passing on tales about ancient culture. Greek history is full or art and symbolism and great warriors are a permanent figure in it.

Works Cited

Latacz, Joachim. Troy and Homer. The so-called Dark Ages in Greece, in: Storia, Poesia e Pensiero nel Mondo antico. Rome: Studi in Onore di M. Gigante. 1994. Web.

York, George K & Steinberg, David A. The Sacred Disease of Cambyses II. Chicago: American Medical Association. 2001. Web. <>.

McInerney, Jeremy. Ancient Greek Civilization: Part I. Orlando: The Teaching Company Limited. 1998. Web.

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