The significance of heating systems seems to be underrated, as, in the 21st century, most people take the specified element of their life for granted. In retrospect, however, the process of heating system development was rather uneven and triggered a range of changes in people’s lives, including the important domains such as the social one, the economic one, the financial one, etc.
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In the course of technological progress, people designed a variety of tools for heating the premises, which finally brought them to the concept of central heating. The heating systems designed over the past few centuries are quite imaginative; though many of them proved to lack efficiency when applied to a specific environment, the creativity, which was used for inventing new types of heating systems, is truly fascinating.
An overview of the evolution of the heating system shows that the development of the latter has triggered major alterations in people’s lives by spurring the urbanization process. Moreover, the rapid technological progress of the 20th century allowed for reinventing the heating and the cooling systems entirely, creating the ways of combining the two and, thus, locating the perfect design for the heating system.
The impact, which the adoption of the latest technological innovations to the design of the heating system had on the urbanization process and the lives of people in cities and towns, is also beyond impressive. By redesigning the hating system and, thus, putting a stronger emphasis on the technological development, people of the 20th century propelled technology to an entirely new level, triggering the following technological renaissance and the enhancement of the role of technology in their lives, thus, heralding an entirely new era.
The purpose of this report is to summarize the findings that have been made over the course of the analysis of the heating systems developed over time. There is no secret that the issue of heating in residential communities is of huge significance for the residents of the moderate climate zones. Numerous endeavors at maintaining room temperature indoors during the cold season have been undertaken with varying success, the process of perfecting the existing heating system still taking place. A closer look at the history of heating systems will show the complex and challenging way of innovating decisions.
Therefore, an overview of the heating system origin and development is the primary goal of the paper. Next, the air cooling systems will be discussed, starting with their origin up to their current modifications. Third, the integration of the two will be analyzed in order to identify the methods, with the help of which the systems in question were integrated into a single mechanism. Last, but definitely not least, the effects, which the specified systems had on the development of the 20th-century society, will be analyzed. While the link between the social life and the technological progress may not be obvious at first, a closer look at the subject matter will show that the incorporation of the heating system into the framework of cities and towns contributed to the further urbanization, thus, spurring the development of enterprises and altering the lives of people working for these companies, affecting the former even on the personal level.
Another objective, which also aligns with the purpose of the paper, concerns making suppositions regarding the future heating system models. There is no need to stress that the innovative technologies of the 20th century have launched a range of inventions concerning the methods of using the existing resources as a source of energy. Therefore, by carrying out an analysis of the development of the heating system, one will be capable of evaluating the role, which the air heating and cooling technology have had on the lives of people all over the world.
An overview of the development of the heating system reveals that the concept of using sustainable sources of energy has emerged only recently, yet already opened a plethora of opportunities for redesigning the current heating system. Indeed, a closer look at the latter will show that it has several major problems, a high possibility of poor heating being the key one. The analysis of the existing literature has shown that the heating system development has gone a long way from being a very basic set of tools for increasing the average temperature of the premises to a complex set of devices, with the help of which the dweller of a house could coordinate the temperature by either increasing or reducing it.
In retrospect, one must admit that the process of the heating system development was uneven, some stages being major breakthroughs, while others are representing an obvious lack of ideas. However, seeing that the current system leaves much to be desired and has a range of flaws, one may assume that a certain opportunity has been missed in the process of the heating system development. An analysis of the heating system development will help locate the point at which the evolution of the heating system concept reached its critical point and was steered away from the opportunities that innovative technologies and sustainable development suggested.
Despite the fact that the development of the heating system over centuries has shown a clear tendency towards a responsible use of energy, and the search for alternative sources of energy for the heating system has been going on for several decades running, little to no alternatives, which can be identified as cheap and simple to deploy in modern cities, have been located so far.
The scope of the paper is going to be rather broad, as the study will encompass the development of heating systems throughout centuries, starting from the era when central heating emerged as a concept. Consequently, the study to be carried out can be deemed as rather deep, with a detailed analysis of the progress and the factors that either enhanced it or held it back on different stages of humankind’s evolution.
In addition, the fact that the research will incorporate the stages of evolution of the central heating concept in various countries deserves to be mentioned. As a result, the research is expected to be quite broad as well, with a study of the changes, which the incorporation of the heating and the cooling system shad on various aspects of people’s lives.
Seeing that the study is going to be both broad and deep, it can be assumed that its scope will be rather wide. It should also be born in mind that the research will consider the effects, which the heating system development had on various aspects of people’s lives, including the industrial one (i.e., the increasing pace of the urbanization process and the following development of cities and enterprises), the economic one (i.e., the aforementioned companies development and the following economic growth, which the above-mentioned change triggered in people’s lives), and the social one (i.e., the effects, which the aforementioned urbanization and the sudden evolution of companies form small and medium enterprises into large corporations had on the family roles, the interaction between the family members, the change of family values, etc.). Hence, the scope of the study is going to be rather wide.
The concept of the heating system has obviously undergone a series of major alterations. The phenomenon of central heating, which was introduced into the household, as well as the operations of a variety of organizations, both private and state ones, in fact, dates back to the Roman Empire. As Smith and Sweet (2006) explain, the underfloor radiant heating, also known under the title of a “hypocaust” (Smith & Sweet, 2006, p. 56). Moreover, Ancient Romans must be credited for the design of the very concept of temperature regulation based on water heating (Smith & Sweet, 2006).
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Making a giant leap into the 18th century, one will be able to see that the inventions suggested by the dwellers of Ancient Rome had a comparatively long shelf life, seeing that it was not until the middle of the 17th century that the design of other heating devices was suggested (Nagengast, 2001). According to the existing historical records, in 1742, Benjamin Franklin improved the design of cast-iron stoves, thus, launching the further stage of the central heating evolution. The freestanding stone designed by the inventor allowed for dispersing the warmth in all directions; this spawned the further competition in perfecting the design suggested by Franklin, and numerous manufacturers came up with the ideas that would, later on, trigger the creation of forced-air heating by including the blower into the mechanism (Smith & Sweet, 2006).
In fact, the aforementioned invention created the basis for the design of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Cooling) system, which, in its turn, gave vent to the design of the HVAC&R (Heating, Ventilation, Air Cooling, and Refrigeration) system (Southard, Xiaobing & Spitler, 2014). Though the phenomenon of the heating system was made popular and was talked about repeatedly nearly instantly, certain misconceptions regarding the role of specific elements in the design of the heating system were made at some point and have repeatedly been made ever since. For instance, the function of a boiler, which is often considered to be the heart of the heating system, is, in fact, not boiling: “It is interesting to note that the “boiler” doesn’t actually boil the water and the “radiator” works primarily by convection, not radiation, but in both cases, the names have stuck and are here to stay” (Pearson, 2015, p. 65).
In the 19th century, the concept of air heating was suggested as the alternative to the system of central heating, which was used at the time. The specified invention invited the opportunity of designing the system of air cooling, therefore, leading to the new era of house temperature regulation and the technological development of the humankind. Speaking of which, it is quite peculiar that, even with the huge progress that has been made in order to transfer from the concept of heating with the help of water and other liquid substances to the phenomenon of cooling rooms with air, the very basis for the conditioning process remains the same as it used to be centuries ago: “Today’s air conditioners work mostly the same as their ancestors, though in the 1970s we began regulating away Freon, a chemical used to cool the pipes that were also depleting the ozone layer” (Feifer, 2014, p. 52).
Though often underrated, the concept of cooling the air should be viewed as a major breakthrough in the evolution of the specified system, as it reinvented the entire idea and introduced the idea of reducing the temperature in the premises as opposed to the previous attempts at increasing it. The significance, which the above-mentioned alteration to the design of the heating system made, was beyond impressive. The creation of the HVAC&R system affected both the industry and the market, causing a rapid change in the shipment of the conditioning and heating systems and, thus, enhancing the trading process.
The latter boosted to the nth degree by the inventions mentioned above, spurred the process of economic globalization, redefining the concept of the economic environment and taking the latter to the global level: “The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) announced in February 2005 that shipments of central air conditioners and air source heat pumps exceeded seven million units in 2004” (Hayter & Hayter, 2002, p. 79).
While the process of heating, being admittedly complex, is still based on the concepts that were suggested centuries ago, far as air conditioning is concerned, the incorporation of an entirely new approach to the provision of temperature control was required to make air cooling work. As Holt (2013) explains, it is hermeticity that makes the basis for the cooling system to operate: “The manufacturers of hermetic systems supply the correct protection, conductor sizing, and other information on the equipment nameplate” (Holt, 2013, p. 33).
The specified characteristics of the air cooling equipment define certain technical parameters of the devices, such as the ampere rating (“at least 115% of the nameplate rated-load current or branch circuit selection current” (Holt, 2013, p. 34)). Moreover, the addition of manual controls to the HVAC&R system facilitates a faster and more comfortable way of operating the above-mentioned devices. It is also essential that the latest additions to the existing heating system predetermines increased rates of user safety due to the incorporation of the ground fault protection tools, such as the possibility of sizing the short circuit and, therefore, reducing the ground fault OCPD to the maximum of 175% (Holt, 2013, p. 34), into the design of the HVAC&R systems.
The effects, which the development of the heating and cooling system has on the lives of people of both the 20th and the 21st century, are truly immense. First and most obvious, the fact that the modern heating and cooling systems have very little in common with the ones that were used a mere couple of centuries ago deserves to be mentioned. As Rappaport’s (2005) study shows, he increases in the urbanization process has taken place comparatively recently, based on the fact that the heating and cooling systems have suffered major alterations lately, drawing a connection between the two events seems a reasonable step in the analysis.
Indeed, the provision of proper heating and cooling process within not only the residential area but also in the realm of business centers, has facilitated a more comfortable existence in the urban areas; consequently, the enhanced pace of urbanization owes much to the development of the heating and cooling systems worldwide. Specifically, the development of the metro systems owes much to the progress in the heating systems domain; according to Rappaport (2005), “Air conditioning in the summers, coupled with mild weather in the winters, made a living in such metro areas more popular” (p. 40).
Apart from the metro areas, the heating systems of the present allowed for making life in the urban residential housing much more comfortable than in the country. Basically, the innovations in the cooling and heating system, which the 20th-century technological development entailed, facilitated further economic growth due to the enhancement of the state and private companies. Thus, the concept of central heating, which was once suggested in Ancient Rome as the key to improving the living conditions, spurred the economic development of a range of states and the further shift in values. More significantly, with a strong stress on the urbanization and the economy, the alterations in the realm of gender roles, specifically, the idea of women being employed along with men and taking the positions that used to be considered inappropriate for the female applicants, occurred.
Although the latter change was inflicted by a range of factors outside of the technological ones, the development of the existing heating system and the promotion of innovative technology can be viewed as one of the major factors that have caused the change to happen.
The study carried out so far shows that the progress, which has been made due to the development of the heating system, is beyond impressive. Not only did the consistent upgrade of the heating system concept allow for a more comfortable life for the dwellers of houses and flats alike, but also spurred the further technological progress, therefore, defining the further growth of the role of technology in people’s lives, the enhancement of the industrial development worldwide and, to a certain degree, even the advent of the information technology era.
The evaluation of the existing sources has also shown that certain aspects of people’s social life were altered drastically with the development of the heating system. Although the very concept was introduced in the distant era of the Roman Empire, it was not until the 18th century when innovative ideas regarding the improvement of the heating system were finally suggested. However, once Franklin improved the heating system mechanism, new suggestions concerning the possible additions to the already existing principle started emerging.
The further invention of the cooling system and its integration with the heating one propelled further technological development in the specified area, spurring numerous variations of HVAC systems as soon as the HVAC&R was introduced into the industrial field, as well as the lives of the population of a range of states, a rapid shift towards the urbanization process started. The phenomenon in question can be explained by the fact that the creation of the HVAC&R systems required a significant enhancement of technology development and the production of the required equipment, as well as the renovation of the industry in general.
More importantly, the above-mentioned changes triggered a series of alterations on not only technological but also economic and social levels within a range of states. Specifically, the fact that the invention of new heating and cooling systems spurred international trade and, therefore, promoted further economic growth deserves to be listed among the key positive effects. Additionally, the enhancement of the SMEs operations and significance should be viewed as a major improvement in the economic course of numerous countries; by promoting the development of technology and requiring new and more efficient equipment, the organizations using the heating and cooling systems supplied by the corresponding companies increased the significance of international relationships with the foreign countries, where the required tools and raw material could be obtained from.
Last, but definitely not least, the reconsideration of the significance of urbanization and the following increase in the role of cities should also be interpreted as one of the effects of the heating system development. Seeing that cities provided more opportunities for the companies producing the above-mentioned equipment in terms of the location of the raw material, the suppliers, the vendors, etc., it was only reasonable to expect a significant increase in the population rates within the urban areas. Likewise, the competition among applicants, the rivalry among the companies producing the heating and cooling devices, and the related events occurred in the cities for the most part, which caused a significant rise in the globalization rates. One may argue that the given change in the lives of urban residents also promoted the feminist movement for equality, as a range of opportunities in terms of employment opened for all denizens of the urban population, including women.
One of the most significant inventions, the concept of the heating system was suggested in Ancient Rome, yet still evolves and contributes to the development of technology worldwide. More importantly, the redesign of the heating system and further search for new concepts define the modern market and the economic relations between companies on an international level.
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