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This paper is a review of a quantitative research study using the article, “HPV Awareness and Vaccine Acceptability in Hispanic Women Living along the US-Mexico Border.” The paper is divided into introduction, methods, results, discussion, and summary. Each section discusses different aspects of the article under review. The introduction explores the background of the study, literature review, and its relevance to nursing. The methods section highlights the study design, sample size, and the instruments used for data collection. The results segment gives the findings of the study. Under discussion, the study’s findings are synthesized, while the summary gives the overall presentation of the article.
The research problem is that despite the elaborate measures that have been put in place to prevent cervical cancer in the United States, Hispanic women are disproportionately affected by this health condition in terms of morbidity, mortality, and incidence rates. One of the causes of this disparity is the lack of awareness among Hispanic women. The authors did not state the research problem in the paper. This problem is important to nursing because cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the US, but the incidence rate could be reduced through prevention. Therefore, nurses could play an important role in creating awareness among the affected groups of individuals to sensitize them on the need to be vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the leading cause of cervical cancer. Most individuals do not have the appropriate information concerning the need to take preventive measures against cervical cancer.
The study is justified because establishing the level of HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine knowledge among Hispanic women would pave the way for the formulation of strategies on patient education on the issue. Additionally, Hispanic women continue to bear the burden of high morbidity and mortality cases of cervical cancer, and this problem could be linked to their level of understanding of preventive measures such as HPV vaccination. The authors stated the purpose of the study was “to assess the level of knowledge of a mostly Hispanic group of females attending a free cervical cancer screening booth at a health fair in a border community” (Molokwu, Fernandez, & Martin, 2013, p. 541).
In the article, a theoretical or conceptual framework is not identified, but it is implied. By understanding the level of awareness concerning HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccination among Hispanic women, care providers and policymakers could come up with effective strategies to address the issue. With improved awareness, it is expected that the affected groups would start taking the appropriate action, such as vaccination against HPV, as a preventive measure against cervical cancer. Therefore, it could be said that the framework is linked to the research purpose. The literature review section is missing in the article. However, in the introduction, the authors used several references. The majority of the references are current having been published in the last two or three years. However, one source is outdated because it was published in 1995. Nevertheless, the available literature is organized logically, and it supports the need for the study.
The cross-sectional study design was used for this article. In this form of the study, the participants differ on different characteristics, such as age, geographical location, and income level, at a given time. The design fits the purpose of the study because it involves collecting data from randomly selected participants to assess their level of awareness concerning HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer. Additionally, the design is linked to the sampling method whereby women attending free PAP screening services from 2007 to 2009. The design also forms the basis for the statistical analysis, whereby Chi-Square and Fisher’s Exact test was used to assess the relationship between the variables.
The sample included 229 women seeking free Pap screening services in Socorro City in El Paso County, Texas, from 2007 to 2009. For an individual to qualify as a participant, she had to attend the fair and visit the available booths for Pap smear information. Therefore, it suffices to say that the sample is adequately and clearly described in the article. The sampling procedure is discussed in detail. A clear inclusion-exclusion criterion is stated. The inclusion criteria required the participants to attend the fair and get information on the Pap smear issue. However, the authors state clearly that participating in the study was not a prerequisite for receiving the services.
The study protocol involved participants filling anonymous surveys while waiting for information on Pap smear services. The protocol is clear and concise because it outlines what the participants were required to do and the nature of the information they provided. The surveys entailed self-reported demographic information, such as age, income level, size of household, and race. To assess the level of knowledge concerning cervical cancer, the participants answered questions on the definition and causes of HPV and the associated vaccinations. Participants were also asked whether they would take HPV vaccination and recommend it to their daughters.
The instruments described in the article are surveys, which were used to collect self-reported data from the participants. The instrument measures the concept it is intended to measure – the surveys sought to assess the level of understanding among Hispanic women on cervical cancer and HPV. The concept defined as a tool for measuring the level of awareness is consistent with its operational definition. The authors present information on the reliability and validity of the instruments. All surveys with more than 50 percent of unanswered questions were excluded from the final analysis. The authors address threats to internal and external validity inherent in the study design by reporting the participants’ demographics as frequencies. The demographic questions were open-ended, and thus some participants identified themselves as Mexicans as opposed to Hispanics. This aspect would have caused a threat to validity if not addressed. The study does not have indications for any ethical concerns, but the institutional review board (IRB) approved it as indicated in the article. The study is also described with enough detail for replication, and thus the results could be generalized in other populations.
The characteristics of the sample are described based on their demographic information, such as age, race, size of household, and income level. For example, the participants’ ages were placed into five categories (18-30, 31-40, 41-50, and >50). Information on the income level, the number of people in a household, and the last Pap smear were also grouped in a similar manner. The research questions or hypotheses were not stated clearly, and thus they are not answered separately.
The data collected were both quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data included the participants’ age, income level, and size of household. On the other hand, qualitative data involved the participants’ race, HPV knowledge and acceptability, and their last Pap smear test. Chi Test statistics and Fisher’s Exact test were used to analyzing data to answer the research questions. These methods of analysis determined any associations between the different variables under study. For variables with associations, odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression. Tables were used to present data. The text supplements and expounds data in the tables. The tables present data on the different characteristics of the participants, such as age, race, income level, and size of household. The data are presented as frequency and percentages. The Chi-Square statistics are also presented using a table.
The results showed that over 40 percent of the participants had an annual income level of less than $10,000. 62 percent of the respondents had heard about HPV, but only 34.9 percent knew that it was associated with cervical cancer. 55 percent had heard of the HPV vaccine, 66 percent were willing to receive it, and 77 percent would recommend it for their daughters. Women aged over 50 years were willing to have their daughters vaccinated against HPV as compared to other age groups. The results indicate low levels of awareness of HPV as a causal factor of cervical cancer.
Discussion/Implications for Practice
The authors related the findings to the study’s purpose. The objective was to assess the level of awareness of HPV and cervical cancer among Hispanic women and the results are tied directly to this aim. The findings of this study are consistent with findings from previous studies, which indicate low levels of HPV and cervical cancer among Hispanic women. The authors discussed findings that conflict with previous work. A 2010 study sought to evaluate the HPV knowledge among Hispanic women in the US. The results indicated that around 70 percent of Hispanic women in the US knew that HPV is a cervical cancer causal factor. However, the current study indicated this awareness to be at 34.9 percent. The authors acknowledge that the differences between these two studies could be due to the age and socioeconomic status of the participants.
The major limitation of the study is that the participants were women seeking Pap smear services. Therefore, the results may not be extrapolated in general populations. Additionally, the surveys were self-administered, hence exposed to personal bias. The new research topic that emerged from this study is that Hispanic women in the US are willing to accept HPV vaccines for themselves and their daughters despite lacking the appropriate knowledge on HPV being a cause of cervical cancer. This study could be used in the nursing practice to create awareness of the need to have HPV vaccination among Hispanic females in the US. This aspect would reduce the mortality and morbidity rates associated with cervical cancer in this study population.
Overall Presentation and Final Summary
The title accurately describes the type of study, major variables, and the target population. The major variables were HPV awareness and vaccine acceptability among Hispanic women in the US, which is also the target population. The abstract accurately represents the study as it gives a concise summary of the entire article. Additionally, the report is logically consistent as it follows clearly stated subtopics including introduction, methods, results, analysis, discussion, and conclusion. The writing is also clear and concise, as it does not burden the reader with unnecessary information.
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Molokwu, J., Fernandez, N. P., & Martin, C. (2013). HPV awareness and vaccine acceptability in Hispanic women living along the US-Mexico border. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 16(3), 540-545.