Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) belong to a ubiquitous type of viruses that infect the stratified epithelium and undergo a number of clinical researches. Multiple studies support the idea that HPVs does not lead to apparent disease while other scholars assert that development of benign tumors, including warts, epidermodysplasia veruciformis (EV), and various types of cancers (Weeler, 2002, p. 1). The recent focus on the disorder has been discovered in the context of its relation to throat cancer. The infection by the HPVs often appears in the epithelium, particularly in the areas with tissue lesions. The infection usually spreads over the basal epithelium through insignificant lesions. The infected cells can contribute to the virus expansion, which can also affect other organs. However, the above-presented assumptions are not supported by sufficient research and, therefore, little is known about the virus cycle. Although HPVs are considered to be sexually transmitted infections, several research studies have discovered the connection between the infection and throat cancer.
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The sexually transmitted virus can become associated with throat cancer. In this respect, Dizon and Krychman (2010) have revealed: “…a relationship between oral sex and HPV-positive throat cancers” (p. 62). It has been defined that the incubation period of the virus varies significantly and can range from one month to half a year. The latency period can last more than three years (Toedt et al., 2005, p. 136). Therefore, it is often hard to define whether a person is infected or not.
There are about a hundred HPVs that are mostly associated with cervical cancers whereas others are discovered rarely in determining various cancers. It should be known that all viruses share an identical genetic structure that differs from other types of viruses. In particular, HPVs have “a double-stranded circular DNA genome encodes approximately eight open-reading frames” (World Health Organization, 2007 p. 47). It has also been defined that there are about 15 types of the virus that have the highest level of carcinogenic influence, including 16, 18, 31, and 45 (World Health Organization, 2007).
The type of HPV causing throat, neck and head cancer has also been identified, although it has been early predicted that only cervical cancer is caused by a specific HPV. The evident connection between throat cancer and papillomaviruses explains why people younger than 50 suffer from these diseases.
The frequency of HPVs connection with throat cancer can also be explained by the similarity in cervix and throat cancer (Weeler, 2002). However, this is not the basic reason why HPVs influence the development of cancer in the mouth cavity. In fact, numerous researchers insist on the changing habits of most Americans relating to their sexual life.
The risk of the development of HPV 16 is also caused by the drinking and smoking patterns of individuals. The studies introduced by the World Health Organization (2007) confirm the evident connection between tonsil cancer and individuals’ adjustment to tobacco smoking and substance abuse.
RNA scope is a widely used test procedure that allows to identify and confirm the diagnosis of HPV 16 (Campo, 2006). In particular, the test aims to begin the RNA polymerization of the infected site, lengthen the process of RNA polymerization at a moderate speed, and terminate the interpretation and analysis at stop sites. In this respect, by means of the RNA scope, it is possible to transcribe the HPV genome and confirm the diagnosis.
Campo, M.S. (2006). Papillomavirus Research: Form Natural History to Vaccines and Beyond. US: Horizon Scientific Press.
Dizon, D. S., & Krychman, M. L. (2010). Questions and Answers about Human Papilloma Virus. US: John & Bartlett Publishers.
Toedt, J., Koza, D., & Cleef-Toedt, K. (2005). Chemical Composition of Everyday Products. US: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Weeler, C. M. (2002). Clinical Aspects and Epidemiology of HRV Infections. In D. J. McCance (Ed.) Human Papilloma Viruses. pp. 1-30. US: Gulf Professional Publishing.
World Health Organization. (2007). Human Papillomaviruses: views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Which Met in Lyon. UK: World Health Organization.