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Breast Cancer: Effects of Breast Health Education Essay (Article)

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Updated: May 7th, 2022


The critique focuses on methodology, subject selection, strength and weaknesses, and evidence-based practices in the study.

The critique shall enable us identify how researchers incorporate clinical practices, research evidence, and elements in care provisions to give patients high-levels of services. It shall also demonstrate applications of theories in real-world situations during research studies.


The study has a detailed methodology, which gives it credibility. This was because the researchers combined both pretest and post-test quasi designs to establish reliability and validity of data collected. The study also used self-efficacy theory as a guide.

The researchers collected data from 22 young women who underwent training in breast cancer. Training was effective to enable learners gain the necessary knowledge, skills, performance, and self-efficacy. The researchers collected data three times from participants using self-reported questionnaires.

Researchers based the study variables on self-report measurements. The variable consisted of participants’ background information and other health-related information regarding breast cancer. These researchers presented a clear research methodology, which other researchers can use in future studies. This stage also accounted for the research ethical concerns of participants.

The design of the research focused on research variables like skills, performance, self-efficacy, and knowledge as the researchers aimed at examining the effectiveness of these variables among young women who underwent training in breast cancer management.

The data analysis processes aimed at establishing the difference between “the inclusion and the exclusion groups in terms of age, marital status and education, which studies identified as factors influencing BSE in Korea” (Yi and Park, 2012). The process of data analysis also accounted for background variables such as income, occupation, family health-related issues, and history of breast cancer in the family. They noted these factors also had significant impacts on subjects. Data analysis accounted for differences in scores among subjects regarding skills, knowledge, performance, and self-efficacy before education and after education.

Subject selection

Researchers recruited young Korean women to take part in the study. Subjects included women of 20 to 40 years of age. These women were not breast-feeding or pregnant women. The researcher relied on studies of Faul and other authors (2007) to derive the sample size for the study. This method provided a reasonable attrition rate of 50 percent between second and third stages of data collection. The first study had an estimated number of 112 subjects for the first phase.

The strength and weakness of the study

The article has a clear research methodology that ensures researcher get valid and reliable information from data collection. At the end of the research, they concluded that information collected from the subjects was effective for “increasing the breast cancer and breast self-examination knowledge, skills, performance and self-efficacy” (Yi and Park, 2012).

The article also highlights that the application of self-efficacy theory is important in breast health education. This was because it changed behaviors among young women who underwent training by breast cancer survivors.

The researchers failed to establish the correct number of research participants despite using a formula to derive the number of participants required for the study. They noted that estimated 112 participants were necessary for the first phase of the study. At the same time, there was also an estimated high rate (50 percent) of attrition among subjects in the first study and the final study.

This article raises critical issues about evidence-based practices in nursing. It highlights the importance of training in developing health care. As a result, it shows the effectiveness of self-efficacy theory and its application in managing breast cancer. It shows that young women can adopt self-examination and appropriate behavior interventions to manage cancer.

The research calls for oncology nurses to conduct further studies as educators.

Evidence-based practice

This study applies self-efficacy theory and a practical approach of BSE education to demonstrate practical and positive impacts of “breast cancer and BSE knowledge, skills and performance” (Yi and Park, 2012).

Yi and Park demonstrate an aspect of evidenced-based practice that uses research, analysis, and history of the patient medical and family history to offer effective care for breast cancer patient or young women prone to breast cancer. The study shows the importance of education in raising awareness about breast cancer by using survivors as educators. This is an evidence-based approach for creating awareness about breast cancer among young women.

These researchers emphasize that professional in the field of breast health care should use breast health cancer survivors when developing an effective breast cancer control program.

However, the article notes that further studies are necessary to determine long-term effects of breast cancer education on the subjects. This is necessary to determine the effectiveness of education programs between studies by breast cancer survivors and oncology nurses.

Past studies have also supported findings in this article. For instance, Shin and Choi (1998) demonstrated that breast health education was effective in increasing BSE performance within six months after education. This study suggests the need to reinforce practices from research in health care provisions. According to this article, encouraging women to perform BSE can also be effective through regular updates.

These researchers noted that studies by lay persons did not apply theories in understanding behaviors. Therefore, they supported self-efficacy theory as other past studies have demonstrated its effectiveness in changing behaviors (Lev, 1997; Resnick, 2003).

The study relied on self-efficacy theory, which uses different sources of self-efficacy based on expected outcomes and judgments. The study suggests a strong link between self-efficacy and behaviors that prevent cancer in cases where a breast cancer survivor provides interventions. The study is also consistent with the previous studies using self-efficacy theory in breast health and BSE such as Choi and Suh (1998) and Jung and Tae (2002).

This article concludes that self-efficacy theory is effective in nursing cases for managing breast cancer through health education irrespective of the educator.


This study reflects how a combination of theories and practical applications can enhance health care provisions. It also shows how a well-conducted research is crucial for promoting effective behavior changes among subjects.

It also demonstrates that research is the foundation of effective health care programs. At the same time, it also reflects how theoretical knowledge can enhance health care education.

This research has power drawn from empirical facts. Therefore, it goes beyond a mere theorizing of what method is effective or not. It provides valuable data that health care providers and policymakers should consider during decision-making processes.

This research has strengths in methodology development. Other researchers can replicate the same approach in other areas of study. In addition, the research findings are applicable in a real-world situation.

Personal Reflection

Evidence-based practices can link research and practices in care provisions and improve the quality of life among patients through practical interventions. This approach to health care enables researchers and caregivers to work as a team so that they can identify and develop solutions to increase the quality of care.

Evidence-based practices should also have strong conceptual models so that they can provide reliable data for adoption into health care systems.


Yi, M. and Park, E. Y. (2012). Effects of breast health education conducted by trained breast cancer survivors. Journal of Advanced Nursing 68(5), 1100–1110.

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IvyPanda. 2022. "Breast Cancer: Effects of Breast Health Education." May 7, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/breast-cancer-effects-of-breast-health-education/.


IvyPanda. (2022) 'Breast Cancer: Effects of Breast Health Education'. 7 May.

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