Human resource management is a relatively young concept in the management of people in an organizational setting. This approach of managing employees considers people the most important resources in any organization (Daft & Marcic 2004). Human resource management entails the recruitment, selection, training, and development of the body of people that make up an organization in any sector of the economy (Anto 2013).
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Kreitner (2008) defines HRM an organization’s process of enrollment, choosing, progress, deployment, reimbursement, and inspiration of human resources.
According to Davidson, Woods, Simon, and Griffin (2008), human resource management involves the arrangement, categorization, leading, managing procurement processes, and improvement of organizational status until individual and collective targets are accomplished. The two functions of HRM chosen in this essay are recruitment and selection.
These processes are important for any organization that aims to improve the output of its human resource. The essay looks at how these functions are important in the competitive advantage of any organization. The study shows how these activities enable HRM meet its strategic objectives.
HRM and Competitive Advantage
An organization’s human resources can be a significant source of competitive advantage. The performance of an organization is associated with how well this organization is able to influence the performance of its human resource. According to Anto (2013), human resource determines the success or failure of an organization. The human resource department in an organization influences its output through a number of ways.
One way in which the competitive advantage of an organization is influenced by the human resource is through the introduction of efficiency, which is the manner in which an organization ensures adequate output (Buchanan & Huczynski 2004). HRM enables the effective utilization of human resource in an organization. Besides, it allows effective performance in all functions of the organization.
Human resource management also enables the subdivision of functions in an organization. This strategy constitutes the subdivision of responsibilities and hence the adequate performance of the organization. Employees are able to work effectively in an organization that has clearly defined employee roles (Sung & Choi 2014).
Companies with a well-managed human resource are better competitors based on the exemplary output that they are able to register in comparison with organizations that lack these practices. The human resource department in an organization can ensure improved competitive advantage for an organization through the improvement of efficiency (Robbins & Coulter 2009).
The arm is the main contact point between the company and its clients. When employees are well motivated and/or have a positive attitude, they are able to maintain a significant client base for the organization (Anto 2013). This function ensures improved competitive advantage.
Recruitment and Selection
The two HRM activities that have been chosen for study include the recruitment and selection functions, which are important to the general performance and competitive advantage of an organization (Daft 2008).
There is a need for cooperation between the various individuals who are involved in human resource management for the above processes to be successful (Jones & George 2009). Recruitment and selection should be a planned, rational, and sequentially linked activity.
Australian Human Resources Institute (n.d) has given a detailed description of what recruitment and selection entail. Recruitment is a process that generates a pool of people that the organization recognizes as capable of applying for employment (Bartol, Martin, Tein, & Matthews 2007; Australian Human Resources Institute n.d).
On the other hand, selection is the process by which the individuals who are concerned with HRM in an organization use special tools to choose employees from a predetermined pool (Jones & George 2009).
According to Bartol et al. (2007), people who are selected from this pool are the most suitable to succeed in the available roles while working within the legal requirements and goals of the organization. Although these two functions of HRM are closely linked, there are different requirements for each of the functions, especially in the form of skills, expertise, and qualifications (Bartol et al. 2007).
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Therefore, different staff members may be called to perform these functions. According to Start-up Special (n.d), some organizations even outsource the recruitment functions from external agencies.
Recruitment and selection are important in the people management in organizations. People involved in the management of employees in organizations have a role to play in the recruitment and selection of employees, and it is not a requirement for them to be human resource managers (Bartol et al. 2007).
Recruitment and selection of employees enables an organization to develop an adequate workforce to meet its goals and objectives. Therefore, the two activities contribute to the competitive advantage of an organization.
A competency approach is one of the established strategies in the recruitment and selection of employees, with the results being highly qualified workers who are suited for the various available jobs (Baron 2000).
When adopted in the recruitment and selection of employees, this approach ensures that employees who are available in the organization have the abilities and/or skills that are needed to perform the various functions of the organization (Bhattacharya, Gibson, & Doty 2005). This approach is better than the traditional one where employees were matched to the jobs that were available for an organization.
Recruitment and selection processes that adopt and welcome individual differences ensure the best performance of employees in the organization (O’Meara & Petzall 2013).
A diversity approach in recruitment and selection creates thinking performers among the recruited employees, and hence better organizational performance (O’Meara & Petzall 2013). Therefore, recruitment and selection activities within HRM are critical in human resource management.
Introduction of Processes to build Recruitment and Selection
Organizations can introduce practices to build the recruitment and selection activities within their operations. Since recruitment and selection are important activities within an organization, there is a need to get these activities right. The organization needs to adopt practices that ensure positive performance of recruitment and selection.
The resourcing cycle in an organization needs to be well-defined (Anto 2013). The processes within the recruitment cycle in organizations such as recruitment and selection need to be carried out in a timely and professional manner.
Some of the practices that an organization may introduce to ensure efficiency in the above processed of HRM include outsourcing in relevant agencies (O’Meara & Petzall 2013). Some organizations are unable to perform adequate recruitment and selection of employees effectively. They may ensure that this role is done through contracting agencies that are experienced especially in recruitment.
The other way that organizations may introduce a change in these practices is through the training of individuals who are concerned with carrying out these practices. According to O’Meara and Petzall (2013), training ensures that the management and other people who are concerned with recruitment and selection of candidates make decisions that affect the company positively.
Recruitment and Selection and their relation to HRM Strategic Objectives
The strategic objectives of HRM are similar in most organizations. The underlying ones include the provision of organizations with the best-qualified employees who can fill certain positions. Recruitment and selection are directly linked to the ability of HRM to meet these objectives (Meara & Petzall 2013). One way that these activities ensure that the HRM strategic objectives are met is that they act as control areas for the activities.
These activities are the first ones to be performed within the recruitment cycle. Therefore, employers are able to determine the type of staff that they get through the selection of employees who are best suited for their organization (Robbins & Stagg 2011). During this part of the recruitment cycle, the employer may set the requirements for the potential employees.
Recruitment and selection should be set according to the needs of an organization and according to the available resources (Sultana & Razi 2012). Confirming this claim, Leung (2014) addresses the need to focus on the worker’s experience when recruiting new employees.
The activities enable the organizations to select employees who are suited to the tasks within the organization and/or who can work under the conditions in the organization. They should work under the desired organizational culture for this organization.
The activities may also be used to establish the quality of employees within an organization together with the required training. Therefore, recruitment and selection are important control areas for employees who end up within an organization. They enable the HRM departments within an organization to set and meet their strategic objectives.
In conclusion, human resource management is an important part of an organization. It enables organizations meet their strategic objectives. The essay has established that the main activities of human resource management are recruitment, selection, training, and development. The competitive advantage for organizations can be assured through efficient and effective HRM practices.
The two activities of HRM that have been discussed in this essay are recruitment and selection. These processes have been established as important ones in the success of an organization. The introduction of effective processes and management strategies for these activities ensures that the recruitment cycle in an organization leads to qualified and well-suited employees.
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