Historical background of human subjects protection
Protection of human research subjects primarily took root as a response to the actions of the Nazi scientists. Their human experimentation efforts were found inhumane and served as an example of the worst sides of human experimentation. To prevent such activities from occurring again, human subject protection has been created and expanded as a necessary practice (White, 2020). Other violations of people’s freedoms and harms to public health have occurred in America and other countries have also served as the fuel for protecting research subjects.
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Find and discuss at least one historical incident of human subjects abuse in research and what human right was violated.
One of the most infamous and widely known instances of human rights violation as a result of human subject abuse was the Milgram Experiment. Designed as a way to measure the influence authority has over people, the experiment involved participants being tricked into inflicting pain onto others. As the participants had were deceived as a part of the experiment, no informed consent could be given. The physical suffering inflicted upon people was fake, but the emotional and psychological suffering inflicted on people that did not know the full extent of the study violates ethical norms (Roth & Unger, 2018).
What steps will you take to minimize risks on human subjects?
Personally, I think that guaranteeing full informed consent of the subjects is one of the first and fundamental concerns in the field of human protection. As long as people fully understand all the procedures being undertaken, they can make decisions based on their own best interest. Using procedures that fall in line with the regulations, laws, and research of proper conduct is also a primary priority.
What populations are considered vulnerable populations and why?
Typically, people that are a part of minority groups are considered to be vulnerable, as less research is made into how different circumstances affect their mental and physical health. Such groups as people of color, women, and LGBT people can be vulnerable, as they have often been discriminated against and taken advantage of. Researchers must take extra precautions to assure the wellbeing and safety of these groups.
What are appropriate ways to recruit subjects?
There are a variety of ways to recruit new subjects. Most common practices include online and offline advertisements, radio and television broadcasts, and various other forms of promotion. Specific websites and forums for registration and entry are also applicable in this process.
How would you properly obtain consent?
Informed consent used for performing research and recruiting subjects is highly specific and formalized. The subjects are made familiar with all the procedures of the research and signify that by willing out the relevant paperwork. Written consent is dated, signed by the participant.
What are the elements of a properly executed consent?
There are three major elements of a properly executed consent. The first is full disclosure of the information related to research, the second is the insurance that a patient can be competent in giving their consent (Manti & Licari, 2018). The last element is the voluntary nature of the process of giving consent.
What committees are responsible for monitoring the protection of human subjects?
Individual organizations responsible for monitoring the ethics of research are different depending on the area. In general terms, an Institutional review board is responsible for ensuring that all research adheres to the norms of ethical and professional conduct. The review board is a type of committee that is tasked with reviewing the methods and procedures of research based on the norms of ethics.
Roth, W.-M., & Unger, H. von. (2018). Current Perspectives on Research Ethics in Qualitative Research. Research Ethics in Qualitative Research, 19(3). Web.
White, M. G. (2020). Why Human Subjects Research Protection Is Important. Ochsner Journal, 20(1), 16–33. Web.
Manti, S., & Licari, A. (2018). How to obtain informed consent for research. Breathe, 14(2), 145–152. Web.