The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920s), which was typified by numerous socialist, liberal, as well as populist movements, had lasting consequences on the government structure of the country. The revolution was one of the bloodiest in the twentieth century and it marked the defining event of the governance of modern Mexico. Despite the large number of casualties, the Revolution set the country apart from its previous history and enabled it to become one of the most stable governments in Latin America.
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Among the prime causes of the Revolution were the dictatorial leadership of Pofirio Diaz for over thirty years, exploitation and unfair treatment of workers, and the great disparity between the rich and the poor. Therefore, to put a check on these imbalances on its structure of government, the country established the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States on February 5, 1917.
The approval of this constitution transformed the country’s political philosophy, which assisted in establishing political and social backdrop for years to come.
The constitution established three levels of government in the country: the Federal Union, the State Governments, and the Municipal Governments. The revolution instigated the establishment of the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1929 that made Mexico to be a one party state and ended the violent struggle for power between the triumphant groups of the bloody conflicts.
Through various leaders, the party assumed the leadership of the country up to the turn of the century. On the larger Latin America, the refugees from the Mexican Revolution migrated to other neighboring countries in which they had a significant impact on their economic and political development in subsequent years. In addition, the Mexican Revolution spurred other similar changes in the region, such as the Cuban Revolution.
The Mexican Revolution stands along the Cuban Revolution (1956-1959). On January 1, 1959, a revolutionary movement, which had been constantly attacking the government, staged a successful coup in which they overthrew President Fulgencio Batista. Thereafter, the leader of the movement, Fidel Castro, assumed the presidency of the country.
The revolutionary leaders brought major changes to the governance of the country. They commenced by doing away with the neo-colonial political system that was established by the tyrannical earlier regime. The Revolutionary Government dismantled all the oppressive institutions in the country and the public administration was cleaned of past wrong acts.
For the first time since independence, the government of the day fully recognized the rights of the residents of the country. The properties and assets that had been acquired through illegal means were seized. This was aimed at discouraging such a habit in the republican life. Sympathizers of the former regime were tried and sent to jail. The Revolutionary Government dismantled all the political parties that had assisted the former dictatorial regime.
However, the Revolutionary government soon embraced communism, which made the United States to try to overthrow it. After embracing socialism, the country was detached from the Organization of American States. In addition, other Latin American countries ceased collaboration with it, with the exclusion of the Mexican Republic.
The Castro administration adopted a Soviet-style constitution in 1976, which established it as a totalitarian state. The President, who is the Head of Government and the Chief of State, controls all the activities of the only political body in the country, the Communist Party.