In any society, change is an inevitable factor that every leader must prepare for. There are nations employ the use of elections and other use revolutions as means of changing their system of governance. Alternatively, there are others who have monarchs as a means of changing leadership. All these types of changes are meant to bring radical change in terms of eradication of poverty, elimination of diseases and reduction of ignorance among others.
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However, as authored by most scholars, most revolutions embrace a violent nature as a strategy of sending the message clear (Navarro 81). For instance, there has been the Cuban revolution, American Revolution, Mexican revolution, French revolution and Russia revolution.
All these uprisings had the symbolism of the class turning against another class. On that aspect, this paper attempts understand the bureaucratization and institutionalization of the Mexican revolution and its lasting implications.
Furthermore, the discussion delves on the techniques that were used by intellectuals and other artists in integrating adults and children, in the socialist education. This was meant to instill in them values of freedoms and equality. Similarly, this paper explores cross-class and top-down movement as a form igniting the Bolshevik revolution in Russia.
There are several issues concerning the bureaucratization and institutionalization of the Mexican Revolution in terms of events that happened. For instance, around 1920s and 30s, Mexico enjoyed the benefits of the revolution through implementation of reforms and transformation of culture. Similarly, these cultural changes incorporated children in most of their projects through various ideologies that support children.
Children were socialized in into the culture of the revolution through techniques such as provision of education, medical care and other basic amenities. In addition, bureaucratization and institutionalization of the Mexican Revolution entailed organizing conferences involving the growth of children as the fundamental unit of the revolution generation (Foran and Stuart 114). This was achieved through uniting of government sectors and the civil societies for harmonious existence.
Additionally, this bureaucratization involved the convergence of professionals and educators in the hope of championing the growth of the revolution generation. On that perspective, different polices and Acts were suggested that would help various institutions mandated to manage the welfare of the revolution generation. Alternatively, the sensitization of the community in integrating and socializing children within the society and lobbying for government scholarships was also part of the bureaucratization and institutionalization.
Another concern about bureaucratization and institutionalization of the Mexican revolution involve the top-down efforts of managing the system. In the top-down system, the citizens of Mexico were mandated to integrate into the cultural projects brought by the revolution as a method of contributing to the well being of the economy. Additionally, the top-down method involved spreading the benefits of the revolution from the government offices to the community and to the village to help the masses (Navarro 81).
This also helped in achieving a sense of national identity and patriotism towards the country and the benefits of the revolution. Alternatively, in the process of bureaucratizing and institutionalizing the Mexican revolution, the government employed different strategies in the education of its children. For example, there was the use of Puppet Theater and other forms of art as a means of teaching them socialist education.
Similarly, the use of the theater was also applied to adults who were compelled to distinguish between good and bad during the shows. Furthermore, during the bureaucratization, the children were made to learn different social ills afflicting the society and ways of overcoming the ills. Another essential factor of bureaucratization entailed the interpretation of some of the plays by the children. For example, some children altered the intended meanings of the socialist education by presenting their own views and thoughts.
Alternatively, in the process of bureaucratizing and institutionalizing the Mexican revolution, different forms of art were made simple for easy comprehension to adults and children. This meant that the storylines involved daily activities that could visualize and integrate into their lifestyles.
These storylines were mostly based on anti-alcoholism campaigns i.e. the need to spread literacy, as it was happening in Russia under Bolshevik revolution and sensitization to participate in political activities. Similarly, by using art as a tool for spreading the message to its citizens, most intellectuals agreed the technique had a far-reaching effect. For instance, art had a way of instilling class consciousness among the oppressed masses and provoking their urge to fight for equality (Navarro 87).
Additionally, these intellectuals and playwrights felt that the theater had a great impact upon the young generation in encouraging them to condemn oppression and fight for equality. Alternatively, various artists who had travelled to Russia and witnessed the success of the Bolshevik revolution were convinced that socialist education was the only effective way of revolutionizing the minds of the masses.
Another fundamental aspect of bureaucratization and institutionalization of the Mexican revolution involved the inculcating of socialist values into the masses for the cause of revolution. This entailed offering both professional and vocational training pertaining to the Cultural Revolution for the purpose of strengthening citizen values. Additionally, the producers of puppet shows taught their audiences on the dangers of exploitation, significance of maintaining hygiene and the value of work.
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Furthermore, in the Cultural Revolution projects, adults and children were informed on the evils of capitalism and the beauty of unity for the purpose of condemning vices in the society. Similarly, in the process of bureaucratization and institutionalization of the revolution, peasant farmers and village dwellers were sensitized on the benefits if co-existing and working together in the countryside (Foran and Stuart 119).
During this period, intellectuals, playwrights and other concerned artists had hope in the peasant farmers as the major movers of the social revolution. This was accounted by the artists and writers who had visited Russia and witnessed the success of the Bolshevik revolution. Furthermore, these cultural projects condemned ignorance of the masses and encouraged its masses to embrace education as a tool for overcoming exploitation of capitalism and oppression by the upper-class.
However, when it comes to the Bolshevik revolution, I think it was a cross-class movement in one way and a top-down statist transformation in another. For example, it was a cross-class revolution because, during its occurrence in 1917, mostly peasant farmers had risen to challenge the aristocracy for its continued exploitation and oppression. This revolution that was led by the Bolshevik Red Guards was necessitated by a national crisis involving social, economical and political exploitation of the marginalized masses of Russia (Foran and Stuart 108).
Additionally, there were problems in the gaining employment, in the industries and the transport sectors for the ordinary masses while the upper-class enjoyed these benefits. Therefore, the cross-class struggle begun whereby peasant farmers led by Bolshevik top heads started calling for equality and equity in the distribution of state resources.
The people leading the revolution were calling for equality in the harmonization of the cost of living, reduction in unemployment rates and improvement of wages involving the ordinary citizen of Russia. Peasant farmers were also tired with the exploitation of their landowners who exploited their labor in enriching themselves.
Bolshevik revolution was a cross-class movement because it involved both the peasant farmers and the middle-class of Russia including soldiers. All these classes of the society had formed a merger against the ruling government for the purpose of attaining the rights to be treated as genuine citizens of their country. This cross-class movement led to the peaceful demonstration of more than 500,000 people on the yard of Petrograd demanding power to be handed to the common citizens known as the soviets (Navarro 90).
Their calls also involved the resignation of ten capitalist ministers whom the masses felt had been the cause of their woes. However, the upper ruling, class reacted with armed attacks against its citizens with 650 wounded and about 56 killed by soldiers. There was also the introduction of arbitrary arrest of workers, journalists, writers and leaders of the revolution. There was also the introduction of death sentence and use of spies in order to break the bond of the cross-class movement.
This affected several cities in USSR thus revolting against their own governments. Therefore, after persistent interference by the government, which comprised of the upper-class, the Bolshevik committee agreed that an uprising was the best tool to advance the causes of the oppressed against the oppressor. Hence on October 23rd, a bloodless clue led by Bolshevik Red Guards was launched which saw the dethroning of the upper-class and the winning the peasants and other oppressed workers.
Alternatively, we say the Bolshevik revolution was a top-down movement. For example, the involvement of intellectuals and other political leaders who were continually incited the citizens to revolt. This case is exemplified in the involvement of the Bolshevik Red Army in collaborating with peasant farmers to challenge the sitting government (Foran and Stuart 123). Additionally, a leader such as Vladimir Lenin was at the forefront in rallying support from, different willing leaders in support for the Bolshevik revolution.
Top down movement also involved the integration of peasants and workers in the structuring of the post-revolution democracy. Furthermore, the movement was used as a technique of social awareness amongst the lower-class. This was meant to teach them the ideals and values of social revolution. Additionally, the top-down style of revolution as applied during the Bolshevik revolution intended to instill knowledge and skills in the peasant farmer and awareness against class oppression.
Similarly, top-down movement meant different members of the society came together for a common cause. This was attained through the use of arts such as Community Theater and forms of art for socialist education. In addition, this socialist education also incorporated children as an integral part of the revolution and teaching them the ethos and ideals of the rebellion (Foran and Stuart 116).
Therefore, apart from learning values of revolution, children, workers and peasant farmers were informed about the ills of capitalism, the benefits of remaining together for the success of the revolution and significance of helping one another.
Alternatively, as a strategy and a tool for revolution the leaders also sensitized the masses on the need to learn about their rights and freedom as other equal citizens of USSR. This led to rebellious transformation with a majority of peasants and workers turning promptly against landowners. Similarly, effects of top-down movement were felt when more than 500,000 people marched peacefully on the streets towards Petrograd in order to petition the sitting government to resign (Navarro 111).
Additionally, because of top-down effect, soldiers later turned downed the government directive to shoot peaceful demonstrators hence resulting to the eventual success of the Bolshevik revolution.
In summary, this paper can note a few issues. For example, for any effective change to occur so that the country must come together for a common cause. Similarly, it is crucial for the enlightened masses to sensitize the common masses on the need to fight for their rights and freedoms. This can be achieved through civil education and use of art such Puppet Theater as was applied by the Mexicans and Russians (Navarro 87).
Additionally, these forms of sensitization should aim at eradicating ignorance and instilling hope and confidence amongst the ordinary citizens. Alternatively, any form of learning should engage every member of the society from men, women and children for the reason of instilling sense of national identity and patriotism. However, the youth and children should be given a top priority being the revolution generation to enable them distinguishes between good and bad.
Leaders should also learn to listen to the grievances of the masses by addressing issues of poverty, diseases, and ignorance among others. This also includes bridging the gap between the rich and the poor to minimize cases of revolts and mutinies. This will also encourage citizens to respect authority and contribute toward the well-being of the economy.
Foran, John and Lane, Stuart. Revolution in the making of the modern world: social identities, globalization, and modernity. New Jersey, NJ: Routledge, 2008. Print.
Navarro, Aaron. Political intelligence and the creation of modern Mexico, 1938-1954. New York, NY: Penn State Press, 2010. Print.