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Research on job stress and depression
Job stress and depression are some of the most striking problems experienced at different work places by employees. Stress greatly reduces the concentration of an individual and the overall performance at work place. It has been observed that there is a great correlation between job satisfaction and performance of the employees (Rehman & Waheed, 2011, p.6).
The research is intended to investigate the most common causes of job stress and depression among some employees of the organization, as well as examining how stress and depression are manifested among employees.
It also investigates the various approaches that have been applied by many employees in managing job stress and depression, and the identification of the most appropriate approach to be used. Moreover, family of an individual can play a significant role in helping to manage the stress that is developed at a work place (Regehr, 2005, p.2).
Sample description and Method of selection
The sample consists of 60 line managers drawn from different organizations. The line managers were chosen because they are individuals who have experienced job stress both at the employee level and at the management level. They are still bound to similar situations since they are answerable to higher authorities.
Five different types of organizations were randomly selected from the numerous organizations that offer employment opportunities including banking institutions, learning institutions, hospitals, production companies, and hotels. The sets of all the different kinds of institutions were listed and a simple random sample of four institutions drawn from each category. Three line managers were then randomly selected from the twenty selected institutions and interviewed.
Descriptive methods selected for the research
The method that is to be used in the research is the survey research method. This involves use of a set of questions designed in the form a questionnaire and administered to an individual to obtain some relevant information (Thomas, Nelson, and Silverman, 2010, p.19). It is often difficult to obtain responses from all the targeted population hence there is need to obtain a sample that is a true representative of the whole population.
Questions can be administered through a face-to-face interview, mailed questionnaire, or through a telephone interview. Use of face-to-face interview has been chosen for the survey; however, it may seem expensive, but it has the advantage of high responses from the interviewees. Besides, there are corrections or clarifications that the interviewer may make in the course of the interview (Thomas, Nelson, and Silverman, 2010, p.19).
Why the method was selected
Several descriptive research methods can be used in obtaining information about a given population. In fact, there is no research method or design that can be considered superior to the other. What will determine the effectiveness of design is the nature of the particular problem under study and the knowledge that the researcher has about the problem (Fong, 1992). Research could be carried out through a case study limited to some small group of individuals or a given place.
It has the disadvantage that the researcher often has a theoretical concept that he/she wishes to affirm through the survey. Archival research consists of the analysis and description of data existence. Issues of stress and depression at the work place are not static and cannot be studied fully through a set of secondary data.
The best ways of managing stress is suggestion that should be obtained directly from the current employees who understand the current trends in the sector. A research can also be carried out through observation. However, it has the challenge that the subject to be observed needs to convinced on the purpose of the observation that is being made. There is also a need for accuracy in the measurement (Fong 1992).
There are also certain aspects in the characteristics of a population that may not be observable. Therefore, this approach is not appropriate in studying the issues of stress and depression among individuals. The research requires responses from experienced employees that are currently holding managerial positions regarding challenges that they have faced over the years in employment, how stress were characterized and approaches that they applied in dealing with the situations.
These sets of data cannot be observed and neither should they be obtained from an existing data. A case study will give a limited outcome that may not be generalized to the whole population. However, the sample to be drawn for the survey needs to be a true representative of the parent population in order to obtain valid data (Fong, 1992).
Theoretical reasons for the measures of this descriptive study
The work place is where most of employed individuals spend most of their time. It has emerged that, contrary to the expectation of an employee to derive pleasure through employment, the job may have some stress and subsequent depression that can have a negative impact on the individual.
Job stress often extends into family affairs of the individuals and can shake the family if care is not taken (Regehr, 2005, p.6). Job stress and depression are some of the most significant problems at work places. The stress and depression also have negative effects on the final success of the employee in handling a given task. It is therefore important to be able to recognize job stress and depression and be able to manage them effectively by the workers.
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Job stress manifests itself in a number of ways among various individuals. Some of the signs include fatigue, headaches, lack of concentration, hypertension, and decreasing sexual desires (Williams, 2003). The individuals with this job stress often tend to carry home, the job load over the weekends or at night and often feel overworked at all times.
There are quite a number of factors that can cause job stress at a given work place. One of the causes may be too much workload to a given individual (Williams 2003). This could be caused by lack of enough workforce to perform a given task, making the individual to be charged with too much responsibility to accomplish. Some managers or supervisors exert unnecessary pressure on the lower level employees leading to job stress among the employees.
Stress at work place can also be caused by the incompetence of a given employee in performing a given task. An employee might have been newly recruited and he may not have developed the required knowledge and skills for a give task. In this case, the employee will take longer time in developing the on-the-job experience.
In addition, technological advances that are currently observed in organizations also pose challenges to the existing employees. In some cases, some are not able to learn the new technologies fast enough to meet the organization’s requirements of handling the modern technology.
Expected outcomes of the study
The theory holds that much of the job stress and subsequent clinical depression are caused by work overload and the poor relationships between lower level employees and managers. Managers, on the other hand, are often stressed by the associated risks that follow a given managerial decision making process. The research is expected to ascertain these causes of stress.
There are a number of symptoms of stress and depression that are common among many employees at a work place. Headache, fatigue, lack of concentration at work place, and insomnia are some of the expected signs of stress and depression among employees.
It is expected that there will be several ways pointed out by employees on ways of dealing with job stress at work place. Some would suggest that it is appropriate to quite the stressful job and look for another one. Others will talk of putting more effort and working for relatively longer periods to reduce the heavy workload on them.
Some will opt to discuss issues with the colleagues at work place and yet others will suggest that the management should review its operational strategies as a way of managing the problem. The most intelligent approach and that is expected to be supported by the majority of potential workers is this review by the management and making the necessary reinforcement.
Fong, M. (1992). When a survey isn’t research. Counselor Education & Supervision, 31(4), 194-195. Web.
Rehman, M. and Waheed, A. (2011). An Empirical Study of Impact of Job Satisfaction on job Performance in the Public Sector Organizations. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(9), 167-181. Web.
Regehr, C. (2005). Bringing the Trauma Home: Spouses of Paramedics. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 10, 97–114. Web.
Thomas, J., Nelson, J. and Silverman, S. (2010). Research Methods in Physical Activity. 6th ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics. Web.
Williams, N. (2003). Occupational Stress. Practice Nurse, 26(7), 21-24. Web.