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The Effect Job Stress on Satisfaction with Life Research Paper

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Abstract

Job stress is very common in the modern-day workplace environment. Issues such as increased workloads, the hostile environment at work, downsizing, and forced overtime are some of the factors that cause stress. In this study, it has been proven that when an employee is highly stressed, his or her satisfaction with life will go down. Such a person will develop a feeling that life has little meaning. The study strongly recommends that occupational stress should be effectively managed to enhance satisfaction with life. Individuals directly affected by stress, employers whose workplace environment causes stress, and government, which is the policymaker and enforcer, all have a role to play.

Introduction

Occupational stress is an issue that has been a concern among modern scholars. According to Hombrados-Mendieta and Cosano-Rivas (2012), occupational stress, sometimes known as job stress, refers to psychological or physical effects that stem from a negative occupational environment. According to Baron, Franklin, and Hmieleski (2013), issues such as increased workload, overtime, downsizing, shift work, and hostile work environment are some of the most common causes of occupational stress.

The nature of work that a person does may be associated with some levels of stress. When one’s job is very demanding and full of frustrations, especially when the targets are not met, then it is impossible to avoid stress. In some cases, occupational stress is caused by managers and supervisors who fail to understand the capacity of their juniors and how they can be positively motivated to deliver the best services to their employees. Abusive supervisors who rarely listen to their employees can cause stress to those whom they supervise. They turn the workplace environment into a prison-like setting where people are denied the ability to think and act freely when undertaking their duties.

Satisfaction with life, on the other hand, refers to a state of pleasure, gratification, and happiness that is derived from the fulfillment of a person’s wishes, needs, and expectations (Christiansen, 2015). Satisfaction with life is associated with factors such as happiness, good health, and longevity. The number of factors determines how one is satisfied with life. According to Stohr, Walsh, & Hemmens (2012), the immediate environment of a person and achievements made in life are some of the factors that determine the level of satisfaction with life. It means that people who are in stressful environments may not easily be satisfied with life.

It is, therefore, obvious that occupational stress has a direct impact on a person’s level of satisfaction with life. When one is working in a highly stressful workplace, he or she will have very low levels of satisfaction with life. When at work, they have to contend with constant abuses and pressure from their superiors or clients. When at home, there is always the anxiety of what tomorrow carries when he or she will report to work. The mind is never in a state of peace. It is almost impossible to be satisfied with life when one is leading such a lifestyle. In this paper, the researcher seeks to determine the effect of job stress on satisfaction with life.

Statement of the Problem

A study conducted by Rasheed and Yoshikawa (2012) shows that most employees in the United Arab Emirates’ blue-chip companies are highly stressed in their workplace. The problem is common in many other countries around the world. Most of these employees earn decent salaries, but the level of expectations that their employers have on them is huge and not easy to meet. Companies such as Google, Facebook, Apple, and Microsoft are paying their employees good salaries, but a lot is always expected of them. They constantly work under pressure, trying to meet the set deadlines and avoid making any mistakes.

Most of the employers fail to understand that their employees develop stress given the nature of their work. Stress in their work directly affects their quality of life. They earn a good salary, but they are always stressed. Some even lack the time to spend the salaries they earn because they are always at work. Paludi (2012) warns that when employees are constantly stressed up, then they can easily develop a number of health problems that may directly affect the quality of their lives. This paper will help in addressing the problem of promoting healthy people satisfied with life in society.

Importance of the Research

Stress is one of the factors believed to cause some forms of cancer because of body reactions when the mind is not at peace. Stress in the workplace is not something new. It is the reason why workers have always considered industrial actions for the past several centuries. However, proper attention has not been given on how stress at work may affect the quality of life. This research is very important because it is going to link workplace stress and satisfaction with life directly. The employers will get to understand how the kind of life they create for their employees goes a long way in defining the quality of life they have.

This paper will also be important to the employees, especially those who are working in highly stressful environments. It will help them know how they can manage their workplace environment to ensure that the stress they get at work does not adversely affect their life off work. It will inform the current knowledge on how workplace stress can be minimized as a way of creating high levels of satisfaction with life in society.

Literature Review

Occupational stress and satisfaction with life are some of the areas of knowledge that have attracted massive attention from scholars in the recent past. They are fields in social science that directly involve how people lead their life in various settings. In this section of the study, the researcher will conduct a comprehensive review of the existing literature to understand how stress at work affects satisfaction with life.

Job Stress

According to Bährer-Kohler (2012), every single job has its own unique stress. Nothing comes easy, and every person has to give an extra effort in what he or she is doing to achieve the best results. Occupational stress may come from various sources. One of the common sources of occupational stress is the nature of the job that one does. For instance, the nature of the job of doctors is unique. They always try to ensure that their patients gain full health.

It creates joy to them when they see a patient that was brought to them has recovered and is ready to lead a normal life. However, the truth is that not all the cases will the patient overcome their condition. Some of them succumb to their diseases. Losing a patient comes with some sense of loss to the doctors (Phillips & Gully, 2013). Every time a doctor has to face family members and tell them that the patient’s life has been lost is like telling them that he or she failed as a doctor. It creates not only unhappiness but also some level of frustration. One feels that one did not do enough to help the patient. The more one is faced with such saddening situations, the more he or she develops stress. Every morning when such a person is leaving for work, there is the fear that another failure is possible.

Job stress may also be caused by the possible dangers that one expects when on duty. A good example is a person working in mines. Every morning, one has to go several meters deep into the ground to mine the precious metals. They know the dangers involved (Hertel, 2014). They have seen their colleagues buried alive while at work. It is even possible that such employees had narrowly escaped with their lives before while at work. Employees who are engaged in such dangerous occupations often develop stress, trying to imagine that one day they may be unlucky and can sustain serious injuries or even lose their lives while at work.

It is impossible to avoid stress under such circumstances. One is forced to go to work just because there is no alternative (Bach & Edwards, 2013). When the management fails to address such genuine concerns, then these employees working in high-risk environments will constantly be under stress.

According to Negrey (2012), one of the most common sources of occupational stress is abusive managers or supervisors. These managers are expected to guide employees towards achieving organizational success. However, some of them tend to take advantage of the power that comes with their positions to frustrate their employees. They set very high expectations, and they demand that their employees must meet them.

Failure to meet the expectations would result in threats or even punitive measures. Some managers are overambitious, and as such, they push their employees to their limit to achieve the high targets they set. Others are just bullish, keen on using their power to get what they want from their employees. Working in such highly demanding environments is very stressful. It is possible that the remuneration may be good, but the thought of working under a given supervisor may create unhappiness among the employees.

Satisfaction with Life

Satisfaction with life, according to Korunka and Hoonakker (2014), is the feeling of contentment with events around one’s life. In Maslow’s Theory of Needs, it is believed that when one achieves self-actualization, then he or she is satisfied with life (Perrewe, Halbesleben, & Rosen, 2012). However, not many would self-actualize irrespective of the kind of wealth such a person may have. One can be very wealthy, with servants and systems which are ready to serve him or her.

However, such a person may fail to be contented with life. It may be something that such a person needs so much but cannot be bought with money. It may be the desire to amass more wealth that is creating a lack of satisfaction. Maybe a unique disease is causing a person lack of happiness and satisfaction. Aftab (2013) says, sometimes, what one did in the past to acquire wealth may be the cause of a troubled mind.

Satisfaction with life can only be achieved if one has a feeling of contentment. It is true that genuinely acquired wealth may help one achieve some form of satisfaction. However, one must feel that the current level of success achieved in life is sufficient. Shimazu, Bin, Dollard, and Oakman (2017) say that security about the future is critical for one to achieve satisfaction with life. When one is constantly worrying about what tomorrow will bring, then it is not easy for them to settle in mind. Without a settled mind, then it is not easy to achieve satisfaction in life. There will always be a constant feeling that something needs to be done, and failure to achieve a certain level of success may lead to suffering or frustrations in the future. Casademunt (2016) says that when one anticipates suffering in the future, then it is not possible to achieve satisfaction.

It is also not possible for one to be satisfied if the future is clouded by uncertainties. According to Perrewe, Rosen, Halbesleben, and Cunningham (2014), eliminating stressors is critical in achieving high levels of satisfaction with life. Stressors may come from various sources, and they may be of varying magnitudes. One cannot achieve true happiness if these stressors are not managed properly. Lack of happiness would lower the levels of one’s satisfaction with life.

Relationship between Job Stress and Satisfaction with Life

Job stress and satisfaction with life are directly related. Job stress has a significant impact on satisfaction with life. When one is doing a stressful job, then such a person cannot easily achieve satisfaction with life (Fotinatos-Ventouratos & Cooper, 2015). As shown in the discussion above, for one to achieve satisfaction with life, it is necessary to eliminate stressors. Stressors may emanate from home, at work, or in other social settings.

Depending on the nature and magnitude of stress, one can fail to gain happiness. Work-related stressors are unique because it is not easy to avoid them. When a stressor emanates from friends or other people who one can avoid, then it may be easy to eliminate them.

However, Promes (2016) says that stress from home and from work are not easy to deal with. It is not easy for one to walk away from family as a way of avoiding stress. Similarly, it is not easy for one to resign, especially if he or she is the family’s breadwinner, and it is not easy to get a similar or better job within a reasonably short time. It will force one to withstand the stress at work primarily to provide for the family. As long as the job-related stress is not eliminated, one will always be unhappy. Life becomes less meaningful, and as such levels of satisfaction with life drops significantly.

According to a study by Siegrist and Wahrendorf (2016), cases where people commit suicide because of their inability to deal with workplace stress have been reported. For one to take his or her life because of the high levels of work stress simply means that they are not satisfied with life. For such people, they become so dissatisfied with life that they fail to see the sense to continue living any more. They consider death to be a better option than life. As Casademunt (2016) notes, any rational person would avoid death at all cost. However, when stress comes in, it causes a lot of pain and it makes one develop a feeling that they are worthless. Others even feel that their very existence may be a cause of misfortune and suffering to their loved ones. They feel that their loved ones may have a better life if they are not in the picture.

Connection between Literature Review and Research Problem

Literature review conducted above helps in understanding what other scholars have written about this research problem. Blazey (2013) says that for every new research project, there should be a deliberate attempt to create new knowledge. Duplicating the existing knowledge adds no value to a given area of research. Review of literatures eliminates the possibility of a researcher reproducing existing knowledge. It provides background information that will be useful for the researcher in forming a basis for the research. Through the review of literatures, it is possible to identify the research gaps that will need close attention of the researcher.

Research Hypothesis

After a comprehensive review of the existing literatures, it is possible to come up with research hypothesis. The hypothesis reflects what the researcher believes will be found in the field. The following is the research hypothesis that will either be confirmed or rejected after analysis of data.

  • H1o. Job stress has no effect on satisfaction with life.
  • H1a. Job stress has significant effect on satisfaction with life.

Research Questions

Research questions are critical in guiding the process of data collection. They help in ensuring that a researcher does not lose focus when collecting data by defining the specific information that should be collected from the field. Research questions should help in achieving the set research objectives. The following are the questions that guided the process of data collection.

  1. What is the effect of job stress on satisfaction with life?
  2. How can one separate work-life from personal life at home?
  3. What are some of the factors that lead to job stress
  4. How can job-related stress be managed to enhance one’s satisfaction with life?

These questions helped in collecting both primary and secondary sources of data. The review of literatures conducted in the above section has partially responded to the questions set above. Analysis of the primary data will be needed to answer them.

Significance of the Study

This study is significant to employers, employees, and government. To the employers, this document will inform them that how they handle their employees directly affect their quality of life. Making the employees feel worthless not only affects these employees but it also affects the firm. They lose meaning of life and become less motivated. Their performance cannot improve under such an environment. Instead, they become less productive and their attitude may affect their colleagues negatively.

It means that having such an employee in the workplace may completely bring down a firm if he or she influences other employees. Keeping these employees satisfied and less stressed is, therefore, of great benefit to the employers. They get to work with highly motivated employees who see themselves very successful in future. To the employees, this study will help them know how to deal with workplace stress.

They will learn how to ensure that work-related stress does not affect their quality of life at home. To the government, this study will help in policy formulation. As mentioned above, stress may cause a number of diseases. The government will end up spending a lot of resources in the field of healthcare if a large section of its population is always sick. Coming up with policies to curb workplace stress and promote satisfaction with life among its population may be critical.

Research Objectives

It is important to come up with clear objectives that should be achieved by the end of the study. The objectives will help in examining if the research project was a success or not. The following are the specific objectives that the researcher seeks to achieve through this study.

  • To determine the effect of job stress on satisfaction with life;
  • To identify primary factors that cause stress in the workplace;
  • To determine what can be done to deal with stress in the in the workplace.

Both primary and secondary data will help in ensuring that the set research objectives are achieved by the end of the study.

Research Methodology

According to Promes (2016), every research follows a given method to achieve the desired objectives. Research methodology clearly defines the path taken to collect data, analyze it, and come up with empirically informed conclusion. In this section, the researcher will focus on the method that was used in the study.

Population Sample

The nature of data needed in this research can be gathered from various people within the country. Given the large size of the population, it was necessary to come up with a manageable sample. The researcher sampled employees from public works and service department in Ras-AL Khaimah. It was easy to reach out to these participants and interview them. The researcher sampled 39 participants using simple random sampling method. This method of sampling was considered appropriate because it helps in eliminating bias when identifying the participants. The researcher was not biased when selecting the participants.

Instrument

To collect data from the participants, the researcher used a questionnaire. Before going to the field to collect data, the researcher developed a detailed questionnaire. The questionnaire included all the important questions that needed to be answered in line with the research objectives. According to Promes (2016), research questionnaires help in organizing the process of data collection. It ensures that no fact is forgotten once a researcher is in the field. It also helps in ensuring that there is uniformity of data collected from different participants. It becomes easy to compare data from different participants hence make a conclusion based on what these participants say over a specific issue.

The researcher developed two different research questionnaires. The first questionnaire was the job stress questionnaire. It focused on creating a detailed understanding of job stress among the participants. The researcher wanted to know what causes them stress when they are at work. The second questionnaire was the satisfaction with life questionnaire. It focused on what causes one to be satisfied with life and what may make one lack it. The researcher used a likert scale when developing this questionnaire. The use of this scale was necessary to help quantify the responses given for the purpose of quantitative analysis. The questionnaire used in this paper is attached at the appendix of this paper.

Data Collection Procedure

It is important to note that this was a descriptive research, trying to create an understanding about the impact of job stress on satisfaction with life. However, it was important to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data facilitated descriptive analysis while quantitative data made it possible to conduct a correlation analysis using mathematical method. Data was collected from the sampled participants using a questionnaire.

The first questionnaire focused on determining factors that affect job satisfaction. The questionnaire used 27 items. A five point likert scale (strongly agree, agree, agree to some extent, disagree, strongly disagree) was used to guide the process of data collection. The second questionnaire focused on satisfaction with life. A seven point likert scale (extremely satisfied, satisfied, slightly satisfied, neutral, slightly dissatisfied, dissatisfied, and extremely dissatisfied) was used. Before the actual day of data collection, the researcher contacted the participants and explained to them the nature of the research and the relevance of their input. They were informed why they were chosen to be part of the study and the role they were going to play towards completion of the project. All the participants were assured of their confidentiality to ensure that they do not get victimized in case their views differed with that of the other participants.

Data Analysis

The collected data was analyzed in order to determine the effect of job stress on satisfaction with life. It was important to conduct a correlation analysis between two variables: job stress and satisfaction with life. In the analysis, stress was categorized and assigned mathematical values to facilitate analysis. Below are the statistical analyses that were conducted after data was collected from the participants:

Statistics
categories of the variable satisfaction of life
N Valid 39
Missing 0
categories of stress
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Low 13 33.3 33.3 33.3
Moderate 26 66.7 66.7 100.0
Total 39 100.0 100.0

It was necessary to classify levels of stress and the frequency with which they occur. Stress was classified into three different categories which include low, moderate and severe. After a brief interview with the respondents, it was clear that low and moderate levels of stress are the most common in workplace environment. The researcher then looked at the frequency with which each occurs. This was necessary as a way of linking it with quality of life that employees lead working in such stressful environments.

During the analysis, the level of satisfaction was also quantified for the purpose of mathematical analysis. Seven categories of levels of satisfaction were identified as mentioned above, but the seventh (extremely dissatisfied) was left out because none of the respondents noted that they were extremely dissatisfied. Frequency of occurrence of each of the levels of satisfaction was determined. The table below shows the outcome of the analysis.

categories of the variable satisfaction of life
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid extremely satisfied 6 15.4 15.4 15.4
Satisfied 13 33.3 33.3 48.7
slightly satisfied 12 30.8 30.8 79.5
Neutral 2 5.1 5.1 84.6
slightly dissatisfied 3 7.7 7.7 92.3
Dissatisfied 3 7.7 7.7 100.0
Total 39 100.0 100.0

The final stage was to identify the relationship that exists between job stress and satisfaction with life. The analysis would help directly respond to the primary aim of the study of determining the effect of job stress on satisfaction with life. To determine the nature of relationship between these two variables, a correlation analysis was necessary. The figure below shows the outcome of the correlation analysis.

Correlations
stress Satisfaction with life
stress Pearson Correlation 1 -.249
Sig. (2-tailed) .126
N 39 39
Satisfaction with life Pearson Correlation -.249 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .126
N 39 39

As shown in the table above, there is a negative correlation between job stress and satisfaction with life. What this means is that when job stress increases, the level of satisfaction with life will drop. Conversely, if the job stress is managed to the least levels possible, then the levels of satisfaction of life will increase. The statistical analysis shows that indeed the two variables are related.

Results and Discussion

In the analysis of primary data, the primary focus was to start by determining if there is any relationship between job stress and satisfaction with life. The analysis showed that indeed the two have close relationship. The second step was to determine the nature of this relationship. It was important to determine how the independent variable in this study (job stress) affected the dependent variable (satisfaction with life). The correlation analysis that was conducted showed that there is a negative correlation between the two variables. It means that when job stress is high, satisfaction goes down. The findings from the primary data were meant to help in confirming the hypothesis that was set after reviewing the literature. The results emphatically rejected the null hypothesis below:

  • H1o. Job stress has no effect on satisfaction with life

It means that the alternative hypothesis below was accepted.

  • H1a. Job stress has significant effect on satisfaction with life

The study showed that indeed there is a close relationship between job stress and satisfaction with life. When employees are highly stressed, it affects the quality of their lives go down. When asked to explain how stress at work affects quality of their lives, one of the respondents stated that high levels of stress at work create can depression. When one leaves work stressed up, he or she may not adjust very fast when at home, especially with the thought that the following day in the morning he or she will be back to the same stressful environment. Not everyone knows how to manage stress. Inability to manage work stress may lead to depression.

Once a person gets depressed, he or she becomes susceptible to a number of health complications. It may not be easy for one to link their health problems directly to the stress they get at work unless they are informed so by medical experts. However, the scientific truth is that uncontrolled stress may lead to a number of health problems (Blazey, 2013). When one develops these health problems, the quality of life will definitely drop.

Stress in the workplace, if not managed properly, may also affect socio-economic life of a person. When one is constantly under stress, it is not easy to create new friends or maintain the existing ones. Such a person will always be in bad moods, making them sometimes irrational and highly irritable. People prefer interacting with tolerant people who can accommodate jokes and can make others laugh. Moreover, when one is stressed up he or she will avoid company of others.

They end up becoming lonely in life, without close friends who can help in overcoming social problems in life. Without close friends, one ends up losing important connections in life that can help them climb the social ladder or get greener pastures. Their social life narrows even further, between their workplace and family. Without people to share one’s problem, finding solution becomes even more difficult and such a person is likely to lead a vicious lifecycle of stress and loneliness, further lowering quality of life.

Factors That Lead to Job Stress

When the respondents were asked about main sources of stress, one factor that came out clearly was massive pressure from superiors. Some of the respondents noted that sometimes the superiors set unreasonably high targets that they cannot easily achieve. These managers then start piling pressure on the employees, something that creates serious stress. What makes it worse is that these superior officers are often unwilling to create better structures and systems that can help achieve higher results. When they are told to replace or repair existing machines, they are slow to respond. However, when their targets are not met, they become harsh and sometimes even issue threats or become verbally abusive.

One of the respondent noted that mismatch of talents is another major problem. It is common to find a situation where a professional accountant is asked to step in and help marketing officers to undertake their duties when the relevant officer is fired, resigns, or is on leave. Obviously the professional accountant lacks the skills of a marketer. Forcing such an employee to deliver the best result knowing that they lack the needed skills and experience to do so is illogical. In the end, the employee becomes frustrated and stressed, trying to do something that he or she has limited knowledge and experience on (Blazey, 2013).

Issues such as underpayment, late payments, stereotyping, and inability to embrace diversity in the workplace are the other sources of stress noted by the participants. The management should find ways of eliminating these stressors.

Managing Job-Related Stress

Managing job-related stress is very important in enhancing one’s satisfaction with life. Job-related stress can be managed from three different perspectives. The first perspective is employee-centered. Employees should learn how to work-life and personal life. Once one leaves work, he or she should not allow work-stress to affect how private life. Taking quality time with family and interacting with friends as much as possible makes it easy to forget some of the stressors at work. They remind one that life is not just about work. Other important things out of the workplace environment which can create happiness also exist. The second approach of addressing this issue is employer-centric.

Employers must understand that they can only get the best out of their employees if they create an enabling environment to achieve success. They should ensure that the employees are always satisfied and happy because their motivation relies on these factors. They should work closely with the employees and provide them with what they rightfully need to deliver the best outcome in whatever they do. When setting targets, the managers should be realistic. They should also ensure that tasks that they assign to the employees are aligned with their skills and experience. Cases of mismatch between one’s skills and job assignment should be eliminated.

The third approach should be government-centric. The government should come up with policies and regulations that define workplace environment. Government should compel the employers to ensure that occupational safety and health are maintained. The employers should be compelled to respect the minimum wage rate set when paying the employees. Unfair intimidation, punitive working environment, and unfair dismissal should not be allowed within the country. The policies set by the government should be implemented appropriately by ensuring that employers who fail to follow the law are punished.

Recommendation

It is clear from the above analysis and discussion that occupational stress has a direct impact on satisfaction with life. The analysis of both primary and secondary data shows that the two variables have a negative correlation analysis. It means that when the level of stress in the workplace environment is high, then the level of satisfaction with life will be low. A highly stressed individual will not find life to be very rewarding. They will develop a feeling that life has very little to offer. In fact, the paper shows that some people become suicidal when they are overburdened by job stress. All the relevant stakeholders should make a commitment to fight work stress as a way of improving levels of satisfaction with life. The following recommendations should be taken into consideration:

  • Individuals should learn how to separate their work-life from private life. Once they leave work, they should not allow work-related stress to influence their relationship with family members and friends. They should strive to remain happy irrespective of the stressors within their workplace.
  • Employees should be committed to protecting their employees to ensure that they can deliver their best. Factors that cause stress within the workplace should be eliminated. Job allocations should be based on employees’ skills and experience. Employees should be assured of their future by eliminating uncertainties that may make employees uncomfortable. Employees must also ensure that the targets set for the employees are realistic and achievable within the set timeline and using the availed resources
  • The government should protect the employees from unfair practices. Companies should be subjected to thorough scrutiny by the government to ensure that the set laws and regulations about minimum wage, occupational health and safety, and other human rights factors are followed. Government should be ready and willing to punish employers who disobey these laws.

Implications and Limitations of the Study

The outcome of this study has significant implications which will help address the problem of job stress and improve satisfaction with life among people within this society. The study shows that solution to this problem lies with three main stakeholders. Individuals who are directly affected by occupational stress, employers whose workplace environment causes stress to their employees, and the government responsible for enacting laws and ensuring that they are implemented all have a role to play. The role of each of these stakeholders is defined in the section above. It is important to appreciate that the study has some limitations which are worth discussing.

Primary data collection was limited to the Emirate of Ras-AL Khaimah. Whoever is using this document out of the context of this emirate, and especially in a context different from that of the United Arab Emirates, may need to understand the environment under which primary data for the study was collected.

Appendix

Work Stress Questionnaire

Instruction: Below are 27 statements that you may agree or disagree with. Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each item by choosing the response that represent you. Please be open and honest in your responding.

Statement Strongly agree agree Agree to some extent disagree Strongly disagree
1 Time for accomplishing assigned duties is not sufficient
2 My work requires a high level of focus and attention
3 My intellectual and scientific abilities are being underutilized
4 My work is not appreciated enough by the management
5 My work in the institution affects my family commitments
6 I work within conflicted work policies and instructions
7 In my opinion, I’m required to accomplish certain duties in an unorthodox manner
8 I receive different/contradicting orders from my bosses
9 I know exactly what my work responsibilities are
10 I’m not sure of my authority limit in my current job
11 Sometimes, I don’t know what I’m asked to do in my job
12 The work I’m asked to accomplish is very clear
13 The magnitude of work I am asked to complete is more than I can handle
14 Designated working hours are not enough to do all that I am expected to do
15 My work responsibilities are not fixed and continually differ/change.
16 I am upset when I sacrifice my rest time to accomplish job requirements
17 The magnitude of work is above my abilities
18 I am recognized by my bosses when I exhibit high levels of performance
19 Distribution of work duties among colleagues is fair
20 Workers in my working institution are subjected to restricted performance evaluating systems
21 The institution I am working in provides suitable incentives
22 Appreciation encourage me to perform better
23 My ability to achieve is high because I work with all my potential
24 My scientific qualification commensurate with my job responsibilities
25 My job provides chances for career progress compatible with my abilities
26 The institution cares about workers’ capacity development
27 The type of job I do fits with my own abilities

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IvyPanda. (2020, August 5). The Effect Job Stress on Satisfaction with Life. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-effect-job-stress-on-satisfaction-with-life/

Reference

IvyPanda. (2020, August 5). The Effect Job Stress on Satisfaction with Life. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-effect-job-stress-on-satisfaction-with-life/

Work Cited

"The Effect Job Stress on Satisfaction with Life." IvyPanda, 5 Aug. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/the-effect-job-stress-on-satisfaction-with-life/.

1. IvyPanda. "The Effect Job Stress on Satisfaction with Life." August 5, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-effect-job-stress-on-satisfaction-with-life/.


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IvyPanda. "The Effect Job Stress on Satisfaction with Life." August 5, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-effect-job-stress-on-satisfaction-with-life/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "The Effect Job Stress on Satisfaction with Life." August 5, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-effect-job-stress-on-satisfaction-with-life/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'The Effect Job Stress on Satisfaction with Life'. 5 August.

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