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Leadership Issues, Goals, and Action Coordination Essay

Why Are Leaders Needed?

On the whole, leaders are needed for a variety of purposes. For instance, they are required to keep focus and order in groups by coordinating and organizing the actions and efforts of multiple individuals. Leaders also permit accomplishing tasks by providing aims and purposes, as well as by coordinating actions. Also, leaders often supply their subordinates with perspective, letting them make sense of situations that might be ambiguous. Finally, it might be possible to state that a leader may play the role of a romantic ideal that represents the values and ideas which are embedded both in the culture and in a person’s mind.

Obstacles to Effective Leadership

There are five key obstacles to effective leadership. The first is the environmental uncertainty, which puts pressure on leaders to make decisions quickly and leaves them little time to learn; the lack of opportunity to learn makes effective decision-making more difficult. The second is the rigidity of organizations, which often leave no place for mistakes, thus suppressing creativity. The third is the fact that companies often adhere to old ideas and solutions which do not allow for addressing new problems. The fourth is an established organizational culture, which often results in resistance to innovations. The fifth is the difficulty of accessing and applying the results of academic studies.

The Impact of Power Distance and Masculinity on Leadership

In countries where the power distance is high (e.g., Russia), communication is usually directed downwards in the hierarchy, and little feedback is provided; in contrast, in countries with low power distance (e.g., the U.S.), feedback from below is expected and is provided more willingly. Thus, the lower the power distance is, the better the leaders might know the views, expectations, etc. of their subordinates.

Greater masculinity means that independence and assertiveness are considered valuable. Therefore, in cultures with low masculinity, leaders may often simply give orders, and the others will comply, whereas, in cultures with high masculinity, leaders will have to be more democratic.

The Impact of Group Membership on Leaders and Leadership

Group membership may impact one’s leadership style (e.g., it could be expected that female leaders might be more caring towards their followers, whereas males may be more goal-oriented). It can also affect how a leader is perceived (e.g., female leaders may suffer from lower levels of trust than male leaders).

The Differences Between Fiedler’s model and Later Contingency Models

In Fiedler’s contingency model, the effectiveness of a leader depends on how well the leadership style matches a certain leadership situation. Also, leaders are believed not to be able to change their leadership styles, which means they have to change the situation to suit their particular leadership style. In this model, Fiedler uses the notion of LPC (least-preferred coworker) to identify the motivation of a leader (task-oriented or relationship-oriented). In contrast, in later contingency models, additional factors (apart from LPC) were added to explain leadership situations and make predictions about them.

The Impact of National Culture on Relationships Between Leaders and Followers

National cultures differ in a variety of ways, and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are one of the methods to identify and quantify these differences. For instance, cultures differ in power distance, which means that representatives of different cultures will expect leaders to behave differently, according to their cultural framework. For example, in a culture with high power distance, followers will expect leaders to have all the answers and make decisions on their own, whereas in a culture with low power distances, it will be normal for leaders to consult with their subordinates and make decisions collectively. On the whole, there are numerous other ways in which national culture may affect leadership situations; in general, expectations, behaviors, and assessments will vary considerably.

The Impact of Individual Characteristics on Behavior

Individual characteristics have a profound impact on a leader’s behavior. A leader will have a certain “comfort zone,” which depends on that leader’s characteristics and in which that leader will try to act. On the other hand, challenges will push leaders to leave their “comfort zone” and learn something new. Also, certain characteristics will determine or impact a leader’s preferences, leadership style, ability to learn, and so on.

The Role of Creativity in Leadership

Creativity plays a pivotal role in leadership because it is often expected of leaders to develop new ideas, approaches, and methods for addressing problems. Creative leaders will often be able to “think outside the box,” proposing new solutions to the existing issues and allowing their organizations to develop. Also, creativity is paramount when it is needed to face new challenges and solve new problems, ones the answers to which have not yet been found.

The Key Roles of a Leader in Implementing Empowerment

There are six main roles a leader plays in implementing empowerment. First, leaders need to create a beneficent emotional atmosphere in an organization. Second, they should set high standards for performance in their company. Third, it is paramount for a leader to encourage to stimulate initiative and responsibility among their followers. Fourth, leaders should be open when it comes to rewards; such rewards should be given to workers personally by the leader. Fifth, it is crucial that leaders adhere to the principle of equity when dealing with their followers, and collaborate with the latter. Finally, leaders need to have confidence in their followers and to demonstrate that confidence to them.

Preventing or Eliminating the Abuse of Power and Corruption

There are several ways to prevent or eliminate the abuse of power and corruption; it is possible to mention seven of them. First, leaders should be held accountable for their actions, which will stimulate them to carefully consider what they do. Second, open communication between leaders and followers should be encouraged; this may help reveal maleficent leaders. Third, leaders ought to be involved in daily activities. Fourth, followers should not be highly dependent on leaders to be able not to comply with corrupt demands. Fifth, objective measures of performance ought to be used so that leaders would not be able to exercise their power on employees based solely on these leaders’ interests. Sixth, it is recommended to involve outsiders in the process of decision-making; this may provide new perspectives and disrupt corruptive activities. Finally, organizational culture should be monitored and adjusted to stress good performance and client service rather than the satisfaction of leaders.

How Unethical Charismatic Leaders Maintain Their Power

On the whole, charismatic leaders maintain their power via forming in subordinates strong emotional bonds towards these leaders, gaining their devotion and loyalty; this is attained thanks to charismatic leaders’ excellent communication skills, constant image-building, considerable energy, etc. The key difference between ethical and unethical charismatic leaders is that the former uses the loyalty of their followers to serve others, whereas the latter will use such loyalty for their purposes. Highly developed communication skills, self-confidence, and a good image allow unethical charismatic leaders to maintain their power.

The Main Elements of Transactional Leadership

Transactional leadership is rooted in extensive exchange occurring between leaders and their subordinates. Therefore, the main elements of transactional leadership include the provision of followers with rewards, resources, and feedback, whereas the followers, in turn, remain motivated and supply their leader and their organization with considerable productivity and a high degree of task accomplishment. On the whole, transactional leaders usually either provide contingent rewards for successful task accomplishment or manage by exception, attempting to correct mistakes (which is usually not very effectual).

The Differences Between Micro- and Macro leadership

The main difference between micro- and macro leadership is in the scale; that is, micro leadership pertains to making decisions affecting e.g. a separate group, team, or department in an organization, whereas macro leadership is related to making decisions affecting the whole company. As a consequence, micro leadership is focused on internal factors, such as productivity, employee satisfaction, etc., whereas macro leadership concentrates on external factors, such as stakeholder satisfaction, share prices, etc.

The Impact of Culture and Gender on Strategic Leadership

Culture and gender may have a great impact on strategic leadership. In different cultures, macro leaders may have different backgrounds, be expected to behave differently, etc. For instance, in the U.S., strategic leaders might often originate from various social classes; they are expected to consult with their subordinates, etc. However, in France, macro leaders often come from the upper social classes and are not expected to convince their followers in the correctness of their decisions.

As for gender, it is noteworthy that men occupy the positions of strategic leaders more often than women. Also, successful female leaders usually tend to be similar in their leadership to that of male strategic leaders. On the whole, though, it is believed that leadership should depend primarily not on potential gender-related issues, but on qualities that are paramount for effective leadership.

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IvyPanda. 2021. "Leadership Issues, Goals, and Action Coordination." January 10, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/leadership-issues-goals-and-action-coordination/.


IvyPanda. (2021) 'Leadership Issues, Goals, and Action Coordination'. 10 January.

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