School-aged children and obesity amongst school-aged children
Stigler et al. (2011) conducted a research study aimed at measuring obesity amongst school-aged adolescence in India (p.105-110). The research participants included 1818 students in the tenth and eighth-grade attendance Indian government and private schools. The study findings indicate that in the school-aged children sample, the BMI median and mean were 18.4 and 19.16 kg/m2.
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Compared to the eighth-grade school-aged children, the tenth-grade children revealed high BMI of 18.54 against 19.42. Government schools children reported lower BMI compared to private schools children, that is, 17.63 against 20.44.
The results also indicated that school-aged boys had lower body mass index of 18.77 compared to 19.42 reported by school-aged girls. Using the Indian, WHO, and the international obesity task force growth references, the obesity incidence amongst school-aged children materialized was found to be 5.01%, 4.95%, and 3.25% correspondingly.
Peltzer and Pengpid conducted as a study aimed at evaluating fatness and overweight among school going kids (p.3859–3870). The researchers studied obesity, overweight and other related factors amongst school teenagers in low revenue generating Uganda and Ghana nations. The research study incorporated school going adolescents aged between 13 and 15 years while the study sample contained 5,613 pupils.
The multivariable and bivariate study scrutinized the correlation amid obesity, psychosomatic aspects, corporeal actions, use of the substance, and nutritional behavior. The determination of obesity and overweight prevalence amongst school-aged adolescents accrued from the children body mass index.
The findings showed the obesity or overweight prevalence of 3.20% and 10.4% in school-aged boys and girls. However, obesity amongst adolescent boys and girls found in the Uganda and Ghana schools was just 0.50% and 0.90% correspondingly.
Nasreddine et al. (2009) conducted a cross-sectional research analysis on the prevalence of obesity and overweight amongst school going kids found in the Mediterranean nation, Syria (p.404-413). The study in Syria aimed at unveiling the obesity predominance besides evaluating the covariates and issues related to overweight amongst young kids.
The research was carried out using high school students whose ages ranged from fifteen to eighteen years. The study sample comprised of 776 school-aged children in Damascus. The obesity and overweight prevalence rates were projected at 8.60% and 18.90%.
Fatness and overweight resulted from a high rate of consuming saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates. The possibility of obesity was superior among subjects reporting the history of family obesity while obesity was prevalent amongst school-aged boys compared to girls. Increase in both parental educational attainments consistently augmented the probabilities of obesity amid teenagers reporting lower crowding indexes.
A research study was conducted by Al-Isa in Kuwait to appraise the obesity and overweight echelons amongst pubertal students aged ten to fourteen years in intermediary schools (p.1273–1277). A stratified multistage random sample of 14,659 school-aged teenagers was involved in this study. The body mass index was calculated from the measured heights and weights of school-aged students.
The study revealed that obesity and overweight defined by BMI ranged from 85.0% to 95.0%. The respective prevalence of obesity and overweight among female adolescents was 13.10% and 31.80%, whereas that in male school-aged adolescents was 14.70% and 30.0%.
Concerning age, there was no regular decline or increase in obesity or overweight levels recorded by both school-aged sexes. The general predominance of obesity was lower in feminine than in masculine school-aged teenagers while the overweight level was higher amongst adolescent ladies compared to male counterparts.
School-aged children and parenting behavior-supporting obesity
A literature review study conducted by Ventura and Birch incorporated research studies that were in print before fiscal 2007 which investigated the correlation amid child weight, child eating and parenting styles variables (p.1-12). Sixty-six articles meeting the criteria were included in the study.
The study results showed that even though extensive tentative proof existed showing the effect of parenting behaviors including availability, modeling, restriction, and pressure on school-aged child eating, various research confirmations that depict the correlations amid child weight and parenting styles appeared to be cross-sectional.
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The study findings indicate that parenting styles tend to influence the school-aged children eating habits. The results show the correlation amid parenting styles, school-aged children eating habits and weight. However, other studies found the indirect influence of parenting styles on school-aged children eating habits and weight statuses.
Pearson et al. (2009) conducted a study to determine the correlations amid the adolescent dietary behaviors, family structures and parenting styles (p.1245-1253). A student from the East Midlands secondary schools was used to conduct the cross-sectional research. The total number of students used was 328 aged between 12 and 16 years.
The researchers assessed the students’ breakfast, unhealthy snacks, vegetables, and fruits consumptions alongside the parenting styles namely authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful, and indulgent. The results showed that there were positive correlations amid adolescent dietary behaviors and authoritative parenting styles transcending most family structures.
Considerable key parenting styles effect became apparent for each school-aged child nutritional behaviors except the consumption of vegetables. School-aged children describing their parents as being very authoritative were obliged to eat breakfast, a smaller amount of unhealthy snacks, and more fruits daily compared to students with neglectful parents.
Polfuss claim that the multi-factorial nature of school-aged children pediatric obesity makes the epidemic complicated to cure (p.677-696). The researchers conducted a study to examine whether the feeding behaviors and parenting styles influenced the body weight statuses of school-aged children. Nearly 176 white as well as African American school-aged children’s parents were assessed.
The study evaluations incorporated the identification of behaviors depicted whenever parents showed some concerns regarding the school-aged children’s weight. Besides, the researchers examined the correlations amid such parenting behaviors and the school-aged children percentage body mass index while taking into consideration the parental body mass index, socioeconomic statuses, and ethnicity.
The study results showed that white and African American parents who were apprehensive apropos their school-aged children body mass depicted controlled children feeding behaviors or authoritative parenting styles. Thus, feeding behaviors and parenting styles play considerable roles concerning school-aged children body mass index or weight status regulations.
Amanda et al. (2012) studied parental styles to determine whether parenting behaviors moderated the correlations amid school-aged children’s psychological results and overweight (p.25-35). The researchers assert that the outcomes linked to the school-aged children weight are closely related to the parenting styles.
However, the correlations amid overweight related outcomes, weight, and parenting styles appeared to be largely uncovered in most studies. The study targeted South Australian primary caregivers and children whose age brackets ranged from 7 to 11 years. The children’s heights and weight were stated accurately after their body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and achievement of parenting style.
The findings indicated that parents testified on their edification after finishing measures of depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction.
The study result indicates that superior body mass index reported amongst school-aged children materialized to be positively correlated to body dissatisfaction, but negatively correlated to self-esteem. Nevertheless, child body dissatisfaction is not correlated to parenting styles since there was no correlation amid weight and parenting styles.
Parenting behavior supporting obesity and obesity amongst school-aged children
Rhee researched to examine the correlations amid the functioning of family units, parenting styles, and parental behaviors about childhood overweight developments (p.12-37). The prevalence of obesity amongst school-aged children was examined together with the parenting behaviors that support overweight.
The results showed that parental behaviors including particular types of activity practices and feeding modes tend to influence the school-aged children’s body weight. For instance, obesity amongst school-aged children accrued from how the functioning of the family units was managed and the types of children parenting styles.
The universal family units operations, as well as the parenting styles, offer basic support through which school-aged children could easily construe particular parental behaviors. Thus, the article reveals that parental behaviors including developing feeding behaviors or dietary habits negatively or positively support the reduction or prevalence of obesity among school-aged children.
Wen and Hui carried out a study to investigate whether parenting styles moderated the correlations amid school-aged adolescents’ weight statuses, physical activities, dietary habits, and parenting behaviors (p.252-268). The researchers are drawn on 1,869 school aged dyads and parents from Southern China.
Information or research data relating to demographics, parenting behaviors, parenting styles, physical activities, dietary habits, as well as the body mass indexes for school-aged adolescents were gathered. The study results obtained from data analysis indicated that the correlations amid parenting behaviors, school-aged adolescent body weight statuses, physical activities, and dietary habits were moderated by styles of parenting.
The findings indicated that as parental responsiveness increased, the school-aged adolescents’ nutritional habits characterized by sedentary behaviors and the consumption of unhealthy foodstuffs became restricted.
The results showed a positive correlation amid responsible parents and the alleviation of obesity amongst school-aged adolescents. However, undemanding parents fostered the consumption of unhealthy foodstuffs among school-aged children hence increasing their weight statuses.
Norma and Thomas performed a study to evaluate the status of Mexican American family children weight and the correlations amid indulgent, uninvolved, authoritarian, and authoritative parenting styles (p.243-249). Mammies finalized parenting and demographic measures in a four-year longitudinal study. Approximately 69 low revenue generating Mexican American mothers and their offsprings aged four to eight years took part in the research.
A yearly assessment of children body weight and height was completed and weight status determined by scheming the body mass index. The study outcome indicated 21.0% of cases of obesity, 14.0% overweight cases, and 65.0% of the school-aged children had standard weight at the start.
Three years later, the investigation assessed the impact of parenting styles on the weight statuses of school-aged children. The researchers concluded that school-aged children with authoritarian or authoritative mothers never developed more overweight compared to school-aged children with indulgent moms.
Sleddens et al. (2011) carried out a methodical study to establish the correlations amid weight-related results and the general school-aged children rearing (p.12–16). The research evaluations concerning the overall parenting styles were present. The study revealed parental behavioral impacts on school-aged children nutrition, behavioral manners, and weight status. The scholars incorporated nearly thirty-six studies.
The dissimilarities in the conceptualization of child-rearing concepts assisted in the explication of the inconsistencies established across the study. The study outcomes indicated that school-aged children from authoritative families had low body mass index, active bodies, and ate healthy food.
However, school-aged children from neglectful, indulgent, and permissive families had the opposite. Depending on the characteristics of the parents and children, certain moderation studies assert that general parenting styles have
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