Management and Leadership Report

Introduction

Management is experiencing significant leadership transformations as attempts to make it a reputable profession continue to arise from various quarters. Leadership in all organisations is an important factor that determines the quality of services offered by various departments. This report explores the differences between leadership and management based on the recent health policy of New South Wales.

Definition

Management refers to the use of work policies and professional ethics to run an organisation, management in nursing refers to the application of various management practices to ensure an individual offers quality services to patients. In addition, this also involves the application of management standards to ensure a person relates well with other workers and the public. Management is experiencing many management challenges that affect workers, patients and governments.

The impacts usually involve unnecessary expenses, delays in service delivery and poor services. This means that management does not only involve the performance of workers but also their relationships and delivery of services (Malloch 2012). On the other hand, leadership refers to all attributes that enable managers to perform their duties well. These involve the application of skills, experiences, knowledge and opinions that shape other the perspectives of other workers regarding management.

Differences and Similarities

The difference between leadership and management is not obvious as it is portrayed by these terms. However, it requires a keen eye to identify these differences since they are almost not easily noticed. Leadership is inborn and cannot be derived through learning. On the other hand, people gain managerial skills through learning, experience, observation and training on various issues (American Nurses Association 2010).

However, leadership cannot be transferred from one person to another since it has personal attributes. It is necessary to explain that not all managers are good leaders but all leaders are good managers. Leadership is usually defined in terms of how an individual influences the behaviour, attitude and response of other people. A leader may not necessarily be a manager.

However, both leadership and management are important in ensuring that managers provide good services to clients and at the same time enjoy their work (Nankervis 2008). It is very disgusting to work under deplorable conditions and expected to deliver quality services. However, good leadership and management ensure that both workers and clients are happy at how their concerns are addressed (Northouse 2009).

The New South Wales identified the following issues as drivers of good management and leadership practices that are essential in improving service delivery in its healthcare institutions (Yukl 2010).

First, it outlines the need to identify key features of managing healthcare systems to ensure they reflect the needs of workers and clients. Secondly, it offers information that will enable managers to develop suitable performance agreements (Hughes 2009). This ministry examined the need to identify cost effective ways of reviewing and managing the operations of the executive.

Similarities

It is necessary to explain that both leadership and management skills are necessary to boost performance in the following ways. A good leader will always influence workers to do what is right and not what is convenient to them. This means that when workers are confronted with challenging situations they are usually unable to make correct decisions (Huber 2010).

Instead, most of them act for convenience purposes since they want to avoid being blamed. However, leadership skills enable nurses to make informed decisions and this means they will act according to the guidelines stipulated by this profession (Shaw 2009). Sometimes, it is necessary to apply reason in situations where there are no clear guidelines regarding what workers should do when they are faced with challenging situations.

Secondly, both leadership and management are inseparable from each other. Even though, there seems to be significant differences between these two issues it is necessary to state that they work together to ensure an organisation achieves its goals (Nathaniel 2012). A manager must use leadership skills to influence others to follow the guidelines stipulated by an organisation. On the other hand, good leaders must apply the concepts of management to ensure their influence reflects the overall objectives of management.

The New South Wales department of health identified the following management issues as relevant in improving management practices (Butcher 2013). First, it highlights the need to develop a performance agreement that will bind the manager with the organisation. The format of this agreement usually highlights the strategic objectives of all positions and the roles each person plays in fulfilling this goal.

Secondly, it identifies key priorities of all functions of employees and this means that there will be no conflicts in terms of roles and duties (Fowler 2011). Lastly, it shows the relationship between managers and priorities given to them to ensure all roles are spread across the board.

The document also outlines the importance of linking organisational objectives and goals to measures that evaluate the performance of individuals. It is necessary to note that every employee has a specific role to play in an organisation (Health and Human Services 2011). Even though, some of these roles may be similar employees are supposed to do their best and avoid gauging their performance with what others are doing.

There is also a need to link management capabilities to performance agreement to ensure all employees work towards fulfilling their promises. Agreements are usually established to make sure people follow guidelines that direct them towards achieving their goals.

Therefore, it is necessary that leaders and managers must always refer to their performance agreements to ensure they maintain their focus (Nies 2010). The New South Wales health department highlights a need to finalise performance agreements to ensure that all employees have signed their contracts and that they are guided by their written submissions to perform exemplarily.

Lastly, this department highlights a need for leaders and managers to conduct performance reviews and assessment (Melnyk 2010). This will enable the executive to monitor the performance of all workers and determine whether they are on the right path or not. In addition, there is also a need to review remunerations and contracts depending on how workers have performed their duties.

Comparisons with Other International Developments

Brazil

Brazil’s health department had for a long time been divided into private and state owned organisations. This means that there were two categories of health service providers. Most people were able to afford state sponsored health services since they were cheap and readily available (Northouse 2009).

On the other hand, only the rich in the society managed to afford to pay for medical bills offered in private hospitals. Brazil’s healthcare system was largely affected by administrative and political issues. However, this country has experienced majo0r transformations in terms of financing, decentralisation, social participation and diversification of its services (Curtis 2010). This led to the formation of the SSAM (Complementary Medical Care System) and SUS that have become helpful in improving these facilities.

Argentina

The changes experienced in Argentina are related to those in Brazil except that Argentina developed strategies to ensure majority of its citizens subscribe to various insurance policies. This has enabled the government to sponsor many programs through these insurance schemes (O’Brien 2012).

Reforms were centered on ensuring that health facilities have been financed properly to ensure they offer quality services to the population. In addition, the private sector has been incorporated in this department to ensure the burden of financing and managing healthcare facilities is reduced.

Canada

Canada’s health sector had also two categories of health service providers (private and state owned). People were could afford government sponsored health services since they were not expensive while the wealthy afforded to pay private hospitals.

Canada’s healthcare structure was affected by managerial and political issues. This country has experienced serious transformations in financing, managing and decentralising its health facilities. Lastly, it has diversified its health institutions and incorporated private investors in offering insurance services.

Recommendations

Nations have realised the importance of improving management in health institutions. Australia should continue to ensure that managers are well equipped to run these facilities. However, the following issues need to be addressed to improve its management of health facilities.

First, it should adopt an elaborate selection criterion for managers to include applicants from corporate sectors just like how Canada and Brazil did. Management should not be left to few individuals since other professions can offer relevant experience and expertise regarding management.

Secondly, Australia should adopt transparency in managing its institutions to ensure funds and other resources are used well. In addition, restructuring of these institutions should also involve other junior members since they are all part of this profession. In addition, nations should conduct wide needs assessment analysis to establish the best ways of restructuring this profession.

This will enable them to identify various weaknesses that hinder their facilities from achieving their goals. In addition, this will give them opportunities to develop plans that will ensure they have adequate measures to address challenges that managers face in their operations. It is also important that Australia’s health departments collaborate with private ones to enable them to deliver their services effectively.

Other related departments can include the ethics and anti-corruption and human, communication and transport. In addition, the inclusion of technology based approaches in offering various medical services is necessary to ensure health services correspond with the needs of the population. Brazil and Canada have a good communication channel between different departments within and outside health institutions which should be adopted by Australia.

Conclusion

Management and leadership skills are necessary in all organisations to ensure there are order, coordination and understanding among various departments. This means that an organisation must center its activities on improving its management to ensure it realises its objectives. This essay has highlighted the differences and similarities between leadership and management. In addition, it has evaluated the effectiveness of the reforms proposed and conducted by the department of health of New South Wales.

References

American Nurses Association. (2010). Nursing’s Social Policy Statement: The Essence of the Profession. New York: American Nurses Association.

Butcher, C. (2013). Executive Performance Management. New York: NSW Government Health.

Curtis, M. (2010). Ethics in Nursing: Cases, Principles, and Reasoning. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fowler, M. (2011). Guide to Code of Ethics for Nurses: Interpretation and Application. New York: Nurse Books.

Health and Human Services. (2011). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Strategic Plan. Washington: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and Nursing Care Management. New York: Saunders.

Hughes, O. (2009). Public Management and Administration. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.

Malloch, K. (2012). Leadership in Nursing Practice. Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Melnyk, M. (2010). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare: A Guide to Best Practice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nankervis, A.(2008). Human Resource Management: Strategies and Processes. Melbourne: Thomson.

Nathaniel, A. (2012). Ethics and Issues in Contemporary Nursing. Boston: Delmar Cengage Learning.

Nies, M. (2010). Community/ Public Health Nursing: Promoting the Health of Populations. New York: Saunders Publishing.

Northouse, P. (2009). Leadership: Theory and practice. California: Sage.

O’Brien, T. (2012). Reforming the Irish Health System: Current Issues. Boston: Delmar Cengage Learning.

Shaw, C. D. (2009). A background for national quality policies in health systems Copenhagen: World Health Organization.

Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in organizations. New Jersey: Person- Prentice Hall.

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