Dubai is one of the leading economic hubs in the Asian continent, attracting traders from various parts of the world. According to Tumlin (48), the infrastructural development in the City of Dubai over the past two decades has seen it become a major economic hub in this region. Transport within this city has become a major issue of concern as it finds itself hosting an increasing number of people who come for business transactions or to tour the country. Transport system is one of the most important infrastructures that the government of Dubai has spent a lot on to ensure that there is ease of flow of people from one geographic area to another.
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The field of transport in Dubai has attracted attention of many scholars who have conducted researches on the same. In this section of the research, the focus will be to analyze some of their works in order to have a better understanding about the modes of transport within this city. The research will analyze secondary sources of information, especially books, journal articles and reliable internet sources. According to Dawidowicz (19), a piece of research is important in developing the existing knowledge in a given field of study. Literature review will play a major role in the development of this research. It will form the basis upon which the hypothesis will be developed for analysis purposes in chapter four.
The review of the literature will also help in answering research questions that were developed in the research proposal. Finally, the literature will help give the research a sound background upon which reliable conclusions and recommendations can be made about the transport system in the City of Dubai. The researcher will be keen to provide the comprehensive literatures about modes of transport in this city, including literatures of contradicting opinions. It is a fact that not all the existing literatures have unanimous opinions over various issues about transport in Dubai. Bringing together these contradicting opinions helps develop a holistic understanding of this field of research. It will also help the researcher analyze whether some of the previous researches had valid reasons to make the conclusions that they made. The interest will be, to find the research gaps that will be addressed by collecting and analyzing the primary data.
A research process basically involves a rigorous process that seeks to find answers to specific questions (Dawidowicz 57). In order to conduct the research, there must be a specific issue in the environment that such a research seeks to address. In this research paper, there are a set of questions that the researcher seeks to find out as it was defined in the research proposal. The following are the specific questions that this research seeks to respond to in this section using secondary sources of information.
- What are the most important modes of transport in the City of Dubai?
- How well do these modes of transport meet the demands of the people in this city?
- How often do people living in Dubai use specific modes of transport and why?
- Who are the major players in the public transport sector in the City of Dubai?
The researcher seeks to find answers to the above questions by reviewing literatures from the sources defined above. It will help in developing research hypothesis that will later be used at advanced stages in this research.
Type of literature review
It is important to define the type of literature that is conducted to enable consumers of the material to understand the focus of the research (Dawidowicz 73). In this study, the focus was to determine the modes of transport in Dubai, and how appropriate they are in meeting the demands of the residents of the city. Therefore, the literature review was looking at issues of policy. The focus will be to analyze the current policy in the transport sector, identify some of its strengths and weaknesses, and determine how the strengths can be used to overcome the weaknesses. This will help the policy makers to know the areas that should be address in the transport sector. It will also help them determine the most appropriate approach to use in addressing these problems based on the identified strengths.
The scope of the literature review
Literature review may take different scopes depending on the amount of time that the researcher has, the available material resources, and the nature of research. This is an important research that involves issues of policy in the transport sector. As Hvidt (401) notes, the transport sector is one of the most important sectors that define the development of an economy. For this reason, there is a need to conduct extensive and intensive research using various types of publications. Books and scholarly journals formed the basis of the secondary sources of data. The research made use of the books that were available in the school library. The internet was also very helpful in getting some of the recently published books on this topic. The journals were largely drawn from various online sources such as JSTOR where there are a series of scholarly articles. Other sources such as government documents, popular media, and certain websites also formed minor sources of information that helped guide the researcher in collecting data.
Appropriateness of the information seeking approach
It is important to ensure that the information seeking approach is good enough to collect and analyze secondary data in order to draw a meaning from them. The researcher has ensured that the search for these secondary sources of data is large enough to ensure that all the relevant materials are collected. These materials were narrowly focused in order to eliminate materials that were considered irrelevant to the research. The research used more than ten sources which were a good number to help collect the much needed data. The review involved a critical analysis of these sources in order to identify their relevance in passing the information, identify any form of bias, or misjudgments when presenting the information. This will involve analyzing their authority in this field, and the nature of research they conducted to come up with their findings. As mentioned previously, the research has followed a set of concepts and questions to help compare different items and to come up with findings based on a holistic research. It is also important to note that the research has also cited the studies that were contrary to the perspective of the researcher. This was important to help bring together different views to the topic under investigation. For this reason, readers will find the literature review very relevant, appropriate, and useful in addressing issues about transport in the City of Dubai.
Modes of Transport in Dubai
In Dubai, transport involves the use of both traditional and modern means of transport. According to the research by Christensen (67), although the city has some of the most advanced means of transport, some people are still stuck to traditional means of transport as a way of keeping their tradition. This scholar says that it is common to see camels along the city streets ferrying goods from one location to another. Some of these camels carry people within the mainland. This mode of transport has remained popular despite the advancements. Camels were very valuable among the Emirati society before the introduction of the more advanced transport systems.
This society, therefore, considers a camel as part of their cultural heritage. It has remained popular, not because of its efficiency in transporting various products, but because of its social status. The book by Christensen is a reliable source in this field because of his experience in this sector. He has formulated the issue of transport in Dubai in an efficient manner and defined the research problem in his study. The significance of the study is clearly established, and the researcher believes that the approach taken in the research was the best perspective in presenting the issue. The author’s theoretical framework was developmental in nature, trying to find how the present impacted on the past means of transport.
The research has closely tied theoretical framework with research perspectives. In his research, the researcher evaluated the literatures relevant to the problems, and was keen to include literatures that were both in agreement and opposition of his views. The study design used in this research was appropriate enough to deliver the much needed outcome, and the measurements were fairly accurate. The analysis of data was relevant to the research questions, and the conclusions were valid based on the primary and secondary data. The material was written for policy makers and academic purposes, and it appeals a lot to emotions.
It uses rhetorically charged language, with an objective basis of reasoning. The author structures the arguments based on facts from both the opposing sides. This makes it easy to deconstruct the argument flow to determine where it breaks logically. This book makes it easy to understand the relevance of traditional modes of transport used in Dubai. Although the book brings a clear picture of the current status of traditional modes of transport in Dubai, it fails to bring a clear analogy of how the traditional forms of transport interact with the modern means of transport. However, it is important to note that the book closely responds to part of my questions which seek to find common modes of transport in this city.
Abras (small boats) is commonly used to ferry people or goods across waters, such as Deira to Dubai. According to Hvidt (410), water transport has remained one of the most valued means of transport in Dubai. Because of the increasing relevance of Dubai as a major business hub in this region, the need for people to move from other emirates to Dubai has been on the rise. Although the government has bought ferries to help in movement of large cargo, the small boats are still very popular. They are considered convenient, and people also like them because of their speed. It does not need to wait for a long time for many people to board, as is always the case with ferries. For this reason, it has been one of the means of transport between the emirates used by people who have emergency.
This mode of transports supplements other mainstream modes of transport that are used in the mainland Dubai. The validity of this research was evident in the manner in which it reviewed literatures on this topic. The researcher’s work has also attracted popular readings across the country, especially those who have interest in understanding the changing pattern of water transport within this country. The book gives the historical account of the changes in water transport that has taken place over the years in all the seven emirates. For this reason, I considered this piece of literature an important piece of information that could help inform this research.
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The research by Barrett (71) gives the image that Dubai is a city of modern transport system where traditional modes of transport play minimal role in the movement of people and goods from one location to another. This is in sharp contradiction with the arguments of some scholars who argued that traditional forms of transport still plays a pivotal role in movement of people and goods in Dubai. This scholar holds that Dubai is one of the most active cities among the Gulf Coast Corporation countries. Its modern transport system closely compares with the advanced transport systems in major cities such as New York, London, and Paris. Although this research was keen to analyze the transport system within the City of Dubai, it failed to capture remote parts of the emirate.
The validity of this research remained high because of the strong primary and secondary data that backs this argument. It is clear that the main reason why this research considered traditional modes of transport such as the use of camel inconsequential was because of the nature of the research conducted. The research was focused on major transport systems that majority of the population used on a daily basis. It is not easy to see people use camels to rush to their offices in the morning, or back home in the evening. The level of reliance on such modes of transport falls below 5% according to this study. The study also involved analysis of traditional forms of transport before concluding that they were inconsequential. This makes it easy to believe that the research was reliable enough.
Road transport is one of the most advanced and very popular transport systems in Dubai. According to Barrett (67), the government of Dubai has invested a lot in the road transport sector. This scholar says that the government, through Roads and Transport Authority, has been keen to ensure that transport system in Dubai penetrates the entire emirate. Although this has not been fully achieved, the current road network has been sufficient in facilitating movement of people and goods from one place to another. The research also reveals that there are government plans to further expand road networks to avoid congestion at the central business district (Barrett 51).
This book was considered appropriate for use in this study because of its major focus on the plans of the government to develop the road infrastructure in the country. The validity of this source was considered beyond reproach because of the rich academic background of the author in this field, and his experience in this industry. This book has also been quoted by several other authors, a sign that its findings are considered valid by a wide number of scholars. Although there are cases where the book appears to be subjective other than being objective, the researcher is very articulate when comparing the past infrastructural developments in the road sector. The book has attracted a wide reading, especially among researchers interested in understanding the historical development of road transport in this country.
Transport by bus is so far the most common means of road transport that people in Dubai use when going to work in the morning or coming from work in the evening. The research work by Edensor and Jayne (72) sought to advance the works of previous scholars about the development and current nature of road transport. This research reveals that about 110 million people use road transport every year. The Public Bus Transport System in the country is managed by the Road and Transport Authority (Edensor and Jayne 78). This is a governmental body that seeks to ensure that public bus transport is efficient enough to meet the needs of the residents of Dubai. According to this scholar, there are currently over 190 routes plied by buses of this company, which transports over 30 million people every week. Most of the buses are 51-seaters, with over 1600 bus stops. According to this scholar, Roads and Transport authority has been keen to ensure that there are enough buses on the Dubai roads.
The records indicated that the authority had about 2100 buses in active service across the city (Edensor and Jayne 124). I consider this book valid because of the nature of research conducted. The scholar was very specific in his research, and his main concern was on the efforts that RTA has put in place to ensure that transport by bus is effective enough in the country. The research is objective in nature, and incorporated other works of previous scholars in the analysis. This is an indication that the scholar was conscious of the thought of other scholars about this topic.
Taxis have become very popular means of transport in the city of Dubai. According to Quintero (89), the taxi system is the most frequently used means of transport within the City of Dubai. The cabs are widely used by the visitors and locals in equal measure. There are those cabs that are operated by the government, and those that are under private ownership. This scholar notes that, on average, the taxis make over 200000 trips in a day, lifting over 400000 people. Most of the taxis help in connecting passengers from one metro station to another. One reason why the taxi system is popular is that they can travel in areas that are not covered with the other conventional means of transport such as the buses and trains. Once a passenger boards the taxi, he or she can dictate the destination without having to follow the rigid routes followed by the buses. The research work by Sehlinger (121) also agrees with the work of Quintero that taxis have been very useful, especially to the tourists. Taxis have been very popular among the tourists who visit the City of Dubai.
Some of the operators would volunteer to take their customers around, showing them some of the beauties of the city at friendly costs. Most of these taxis can be booked online, making them even more popular with the tourists. They have a close coordination with major hotels, making the tourism industry in the country efficient. The report of the two scholars meets the threshold of a scholarly work that can be used as a basis of this research. The work by Quintero incorporated a large sample population that was able to give a comprehensive data on the research topic. The research was objective in nature, and was able to address the topic without discriminating contradictory views. The research by Sehlinger was considered valid enough for this study because of the in-depth analysis of primary and secondary data that was conducted. This scholar is also a known scholar who has conducted research on other related studies not only in the United Arab Emirates, but also in the entire Middle East.
He is an authority in this field of research, and most of his work has always been focused on how to improve transport system in this region. His articulate nature in addressing specific issues about transport system in the country makes his work very valuable in this study.
According to Al-Kodmany and Ali (56), the rail transport is currently one of the most modern means of transport in Dubai. The Dubai Metro project was a mega project that cost the government about $ 3.89 billion. Although the project is yet to be completed, the scholar says that it has had massive impact on the transport system in the country. The project was designed in various phases. The Red Line which runs through the heart of the city is already operational. It was officially launched on September 2011. The Green Line which runs from the Al Rashdya to the main city center is about to be completed according to this report.
The Metro will be expected to be complete with a construction of two other lanes. There are plans underway to construct the Blue and Purple Lines to supplement the Green and Red Lines. The Green and Blue Lines will be expected to cover about 70 kilometers of track, with about 43 stations (Al-Kodmany and Ali 78). The project is expected to replace the old railway systems that were common in this country in the past. The author of this book took great care in collecting data about the construction of the Dubai Metro. The findings of this research were based on primary sources of data. It is important to note that this scholar almost ignored secondary sources of information when writing the book. This would be understandable because the Dubai Metro was something unique in this country, and not many scholars had given it much attention before.
This was one of the pioneer scholarly works that were being conducted in this field. Although some critics have accused this scholar of being subjective in his presentations, a keen analysis of his work reveals that he was focused on bringing the true image about the development of the metro, its impact on the city, and how the Dubai society received it.
The Dubai Water Bus System is another mode of transport that is developing popularity in the City of Dubai. The research by Fridell (67) notes that the Water Bus System was a deliberate effort to fuse traditional modes of transport with some of the modern means of transport. The water buses were designed to resemble the traditional boats, but it has modern features that make it superior to the traditional boats. Unlike the traditional boats, it is powered by engines that have enhanced the speed. It is built like a bus to ensure that passengers are not affected by direct sunlight, or rainfall, just in case there is a downpour. Like the Metro Buses, the water buses have specific routes that they take to transport people from Dubai to other emirates, and back to Dubai. Most of the modern water buses are air conditioned in order to improve the experience of the passengers during the trip from one location to another (Fridell 112).
The scholar’s work used small number sample size, but it is clear that there was an effort to bring an understanding of how the traditional boats have slowly been transformed into modern water buses. The author has also formulated the problem of the research clearly, making it easy to understand the area of focus. The scope of the research is also clearly defined, making it easy to understand the choice of data collected.
The research by Sayid (67) shows that air transport is one of the leading means of transport that connects Dubai to the outside world. The researcher observes that a few ultra-rich families in Dubai occasionally use air transport within Dubai. They use helicopters to move from one location to another. However, the number of those who use these choppers is very limited. Dubai International Airport is one of the busiest hubs in this region, receiving international visitors from all over the world. It hosts some of the leading airline companies such as the Emirates and Fly Dubai. Al Maktoum International Airport is also poised to be another leading airport that would increase the capacity of this city to receive international travels directly from major cities in the world such as New York, London, Paris, Berlin, Toronto, and Melbourne. This is expected to increase the flow of people into the city. This argument is supported by Ramos (39) who conducted research on the impact of transport infrastructure on tourism development.
The scholar notes that the expansion of international airports in Dubai has opened the entire region to the international community. The validity of the works of the two scholars was considered to be reasonable enough to support our research. Both used a considerably large sample size in collecting primary data. They also used secondary sources of information to back their findings in this report.
The transport infrastructure in Dubai has experienced a consistent expansion over the years as the government struggle to ensure that there is ease of movement of people from one location to another. Scholars have conducted massive researches on the transport sector within Dubai, and their findings reveal that there are various means of transport that are currently in use. The road and rail transport are the popularly used means of travel, especially the use of buses, taxis, and the metro train. The use of water boats and other traditional boats is still common in this city, especially when travelling from one emirate to another. Air transport has commonly been used for both local and international travels. All these modes of transport supplement each other to ease movement within Dubai and to make the City of Dubai accessible to the outside world
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