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Ocean-Plate Tectonics and Geology Essay

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Relationship between the feature of the bathymetry of the ocean seafloor and plate tectonic

Bathymetry of the ocean seafloor refers to the measurement of how deep the sea is in relation to the sea level. This measurement may be used to determine the depth of the ocean. The measurements can show the underlying complexity of the sea and the ocean (Davidson, Reed & Davis, 2002). Additionally, Plate tectonic is a geological feature that describes the movement relative to the movement of the ocean lithosphere. The substantial density of the lithosphere in correlation to the asthenosphere makes tectonic plates move at ease toward the seduction zone (Monroe, Wicander & Hazlett, 2006). There has been a geological argument by the scientist of the underlying relationship between bathymetry of the ocean seafloor and plate tectonic. The Plate tectonic theory argues that the earth’s surface is subdivided into plates commonly known as shifting slabs. The shifting slabs move in relation to each other on the surfaces above the hottest zones at an average speed per unit of measurement (Davidson, Reed & Davis, 2002). The platonic theory further suggests that there is a correlation between the spreading of the sea and intercontinental drifts. This is substantiated by the evidence of the seafloor spreading and continental drift movements, whereby there is a similar manner of movements between the continent drifts and bathymetry of the seafloor spreading (Garrison, 2010).

Additionally, geologist holds that initially, the world was one continent, but through continental drift theory, several continents emerged, and hence, these continents have been moving continuously away from each other. Despite the underlying evidence of the continental drift theory, the theory has been facing criticism. Critiques argued that the theory does not provide substantial grounds for people to believe how continents moved away from each other. However, the emergence of new technology and seafloor exploration has provided substantial evidence for people to believe that initially, the earth was one continent. This argument also substantiates the underlying relationship between the Bathymetry of the seafloor spreading and plate tectonic. Additionally, geologists suggested that there had been seafloor spreading, which can be explained by the movement of the magma toward the deep-sea trenches (Garrison, 2012). The herein movement of magma on the seafloor spreading has been supported plate tectonic theory on the earth surface, which formed the basis of conceptualization of the forces that cause earthquakes. The morphological structure of the sea also portrays a significant correlation between the Bathymetry of the seafloor spreading and plate tectonic (Kearey, Klepeis & Vine, 2009).

Happenings on either side of the transform fault

There are several movements, which happen on either side of a transformation fault. Transformation faults are a horizontal movement that occurs on either side of sinisterly and dextral locations. These faults are more prevalent in deep seas and oceans whereby, transform faults are created via Mind Ocean ridges (Monroe, Wicander & Hazlett, 2006). Transform faults movements on either side may be distinguished from strike-slip faults in the manner of their movements occurs in horizontal directions where plates slide against each other in an opposite horizontal direction. On the contrary, the movements of the strike-slip fault occur in the horizontal and vertical directions. Additionally, transform faults have a junction at the end of the plate boundary, which helps to support its movement in a horizontal direction. In the middle of the ocean ridges, transform faults remain fixed in one location, unlike the ocean seafloor, which may be pushed away from the ridges (Davidson, Reed & Davis, 2002).

There are different types of transform faults, which help to identify the happenings on either side of the faults. Among them include growing length faults, Constant length faults, and decreasing length faults. Growing length faults is whereby the growth of transform faults is as a result of linkage between the upper block of seduction zone and transform faults. On the contrary, constant length faults are those whose length does not reduce or exceed in any way whatsoever. This may be attributed to the movement of plates parallel to each other. On the other hand, decreasing length faults are those whose length shrinks as a result of decreasing in the length of the plate’s seduction. This act continuously occurs until transformation faults disappear entirely (Monroe, Wicander & Hazlett, 2006).

The meaning of Charles Darwin’s statement that the geology of the Galapagos Islands was sinking

This statement means that the Galapagos Islands, which provided habitat for the wild life, was undergoing some geological changes. These changes made the species of the Galapagos Islands change to cope with the new geological changes which were happening on the Island (Darwin & Glick, 1996). The changes were witnessed by Darwin during his voyage to Galapagos Islands. Whereby, Darwin was fascinated by the underlying discrepancies’ in species of Galapagos Islands and species of other Islands, which he used to visit. The evolutionary changes in species in order to cope with geological changes as a result of volcanic eruptions led to the emergence of the statement Galapagos Islands were sinking.

References

Davidson, J. P., Reed, W. E., & Davis, P. M. (2002). Exploring earth: An introduction to physical geology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Darwin, C., & Glick, T. F. (1996). On evolution: The development of the theory of natural selection. Indianapolis, Ind. [u.a.: Hackett.

Garrison, T. (2010). Oceanography: An invitation to marine science. Australia: Books/Cole

Garrison, T. (2012). Essentials of oceanography. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Kearey, P., Klepeis, K. A., & Vine, F. J. (2009). Global tectonics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Monroe, J. S., Wicander, R., & Hazlett, R. (2006). Physical geology: Exploring the earth; [the wrath of Hurricane Katrina; could you survive a Tsunami?; catastrophic earthquakes; global warming]. Belmont [u.a.: Thomson.

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