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Polymer Based on Ethylene Glycol – Chemistry Term Paper


Introduction

There are many products in the medical field that rely on the use of ethylene glycol polymers. A range of desirable qualities like as high solubility in water and many organic solvents, a degradable nature, non- toxicity and a boiling point that is linear to molecular mass is inherent in ethylene glycol polymers. Products such as detergents, drug supports, among other medical products consist of ethylene glycol polymers.

Scientists are now exploring and implementing new possibilities in the use of ethylene polymers. Scientists are exploring the possibility of using ethylene polymers to make artificial tissues, drug delivery systems among other new products. Such an array of products as mentioned above will help millions of patients, such as cancer patients, who have suffered from adverse effects because of using toxic medications. However, there are multiple challenges that must be overcome if scientists are to develop ethylene polymer products that are more effective in promoting human health.

Background Information

Ethylene glycol polymers are products of additive reactions between ethylene oxide and ethylene glycols. Poly (ethylene glycol) is available in a range of molecular weights that vary from 200 to 9000. The boiling point and state of ethylene glycol polymers are proportional to molecular weight. Ethylene glycol polymers with a molecular weight that is below 700 exist as transparent liquids that have a slight smell. Those that have molecular weights that fall between 700 and 900 exist as semi-solids.

Ethylene glycol polymers that have molecular weights above 1000 exist as solids (waxy, flakes and powders). The boiling point of ethylene glycol polymers increases with an increase in molecular weight to a maximum of 67 degrees Celsius. Ethylene glycol polymers are soluble in water and most organic solvents such as alcohol and esters. Besides, ethylene polymers are non-toxic to the human body. The Kidney expels ethylene glycol polymers from the human body in an unaltered state. Moreover, ethylene glycol polymers are degradable.

Besides their solubility characteristics in water and organic solvents, ethylene glycol polymers are also highly hygroscopic. Hygroscopic characteristics are inversely proportional to the molecular mass of ethylene glycol polymers. Ethylene glycol polymer fluids are viscous. The viscous characteristic of ethylene glycol polymers is inversely proportional to temperature rise.

In addition, Ethylene glycol polymers are highly stable due to their tendency to remain thermally stable at temperatures that are below 200 degrees Celsius. Ethylene glycol polymers are useful in making many pharmaceutical formulations and in medical research mainly due to their peptide chain (thus compatible with proteins) characteristics.

The spectrum of molecular weights that are present in ethylene glycol polymers presents a range of properties that can align with distinct properties to look for. Thus, it is possible to vary the physical properties of ethylene glycol polymers such as viscosity, melting point, and hygroscopic characteristics by selecting from a range of molecular weights (which are present in ethylene glycols).

Ethylene Glycol is the main carrier of the active ingredient in soaps and detergents. Pharmaceutical companies rely on ethylene glycol polymer materials to make mechanical support for drugs. Besides, ethylene glycol polymers are widely used in producing suitable polypeptide chains for the transmission of drugs in the human body. Moreover, ethylene glycol polymers are used as conditioners and lubricants in the textile industry.

State of the Art

Because of their desirable characteristics, scientists are now exploring the possibility of enhancing the use of ethylene polymers to transfer drugs to targeted locations in the human body. Scientists are also exploring the use of ethylene polymers in organ transplants and in the making of artificial tissues. Besides, scientists are attempting to enhance the packaging capacities of Poly Vinyl Chloride surfaces by the addition of ethylene glycol polymers. Here, I will explore a number of ethylene glycol polymer products that are emerging from the application of new technologies in the production of synthetic plastics.

Bio-Medical devices and Blood Packaging

Due to their suitable characteristics such as non-toxicity, ethylene glycol products are widely used in modifying the packaging materials of many bio-medical products (including the packaging of blood). Besides, ethylene glycol polymers are also widely used to modify medical support devices such as endocrinal supports and external circulation products.

Among the main challenges that have resulted from the use of plastic polymers in making medical support devices and blood storage is the coagulation effect. Since plastics are not naturally compatible with blood, manufacturers are forced to add several components to plastic bio-medical devices to prevent undesirable effects that may result from the use of artificial tissue devices. Among the approaches that are useful in mitigating the adverse effects of plastic bio-medical devices includes the alteration of plastic surfaces by adding anti-coagulation substances.

Deactivation of albumin can also help to mitigate coagulation problems that may result from the use of plastics in blood packaging. A popular approach that is widely used in mitigating the coagulation effect of plastic products is to modify the surface of PVC plastics by adding a thin layer of polyethylene glycols. Such modifications have made it possible to produce bio-medical packaging that is free from coagulation. Besides, the inherent physical properties of plastic packaging products are not altered much by the addition of a thin ethyl glycol polymer on them.

Still, the approach of adding an additional thin layer to the surface of PVC products has a main disadvantage-the modification is performed after the PVC product is manufactured. Such an approach necessitates a cumbersome process of embedding additional modifications on a finished product. A more appropriate direction would be to embark on manufacturing a PVC product that has desirable mechanical characteristics and anti-coagulation properties from the onset.

Researchers are now exploring the possibility of grafting ethyl glycol polymers on PVC materials from the first stage of production without altering desirable characteristics (such as high strength and elasticity) that are inherent in PVC materials. In his research, Bili Balakrishnan has proposed a method of grafting ethyl glycol materials onto PVC materials at the initial stage of producing bio-medical packaging devices. Balakrishnan has lauded such an approach as one that is capable of producing anti-coagulant surfaces without altering the desirable qualities of PVC materials.

In his research, Balakrishnan added amino acids into PVC. Here, he (Balakrishnan) treated PVC with a highly concentrated solution of aqueous ethylenediamine. A gram of PVC resin was mixed with a highly concentrated solution of ethylenediamine. The obtained mixture was stirred vigorously at a constant temperature of 80 degrees Celsius for about an hour.

Once the reaction had completed, the PVC resin was cleaned using water (to remove the ethylenediamine that had not reacted). The PVC resin was then dried in an oven. After adding amino acids to the PVC resin, Balakrishnan grafted ethylene glycol polymer onto the PVC resin. Here, Balakrishnan reacted the aminated PVC with hexamethylene diisocyanate. Thus, the isocyanate group was incorporated into the animated PVC resin. Ethylene glycol polymer (the molecular weight was 600) was reacted with the isocyanate resin; thus, obtaining a modified PVC as a final product.

After creating a modified PVC resin, Balakrishnan evaluated the characteristics of the modified polymer against those of ordinary PVC by conducting thermal analysis and spectroscopy studies. Studies on coagulation characteristics indicated that the treated resins had anti-coagulating characteristics. Here, Blood that was rich in platelet cells was placed on thin resin films measuring about 2 cm by 2 cm. Thus, Balakrishnan conducted platelet count studies on thin resin films. The films were then placed in an incubator for about one hour at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.

After washing the films to remove non-adhering platelets, Balakrishnan stained the samples. He then observed the films under an optical microscope and made observations. Observations indicated that treated PVC resins had very low adhesion characteristics, unlike untreated resins. Spectral and thermal analysis studies confirmed that desirable characteristics of treated PVC had not been altered due to ethylene glycol grafting. This particular study holds a promise of producing (at the first stage of production) bio-medical packaging devices that have desirable characteristics but anti-coagulating properties.

Drug Delivery Systems

Emerging technologies in polymer science have contributed to the evolution of new drug delivery systems. Initially, polymers have found diverse applications in drug delivery including providing mechanical support, acting as solvents for active ingredients and providing a stabilizing effect. However, recent advances in polymer science are leading to the evolution of new drug delivery systems. Here, ethylene glycol polymers have found a wide berth of application due to their desirable characteristics (such as solubility in water and most organic solvents and non-toxicity).

Moreover, ethylene glycol polymers have a low polydispersity (PDI) index that stands at just 1.0. Ethylene glycol polymers can thus reliably stay in the human body. Due to their high solubility characteristics, ethylene glycols can help to transfer/deliver hydrophobic drugs within the human body. Ethylene glycol polymers anti-coagulate with human blood; hence, they are compatible residents in the human body.

Conjugating with Enzymes

When used as drug conjugates, ethylene glycol polymers provide a number of advantages. First, ethylene glycol polymers can reside in the human body for a longer time than other conjugates. Secondly, ethylene glycol polymers do not reduce the effect of enzymes in the human body. Moreover, since they are compatible with human blood, ethylene glycol polymers do not induce the release of antibody proteins. In general, ethylene glycol polymers are reliable in releasing drugs to intended locations within the human body for desirable durations of time.

Among the areas that hold great promise in therapeutic treatment is the use of ethylene glycol polymers as enzyme conjugates. The main advantage that is offered by enzyme treatment is its high degree of accuracy and specificity. Several studies have indicated that enzymes are effective for the treatment of various types of tumors.

Among the main mechanisms that are used by enzymes to kill tumor cells includes targeting the plasma proteins of tumor cells. Several medications that intend to use polymer conjugates in targeting tumor cells are in the clinical trial stage. Camthotecin and Irinotecan are examples of polymer conjugate cancer drugs that are currently in the trial stage.

Binding with Drugs

Apart from conjugating with enzymes, ethylene glycol polymers can be modified to covalently attract with drugs. Although researchers have attempted to develop other materials that can help to transfer drugs within the human body, ethylene glycol polymers remain more competitive due to their suitable properties. Apart from possessing suitable qualities for drug delivery, ethylene glycol polymers have offered a low-cost solution in the pharmaceutical industry for many years. As it is often the case, many drugs will require certain modifications to improve their efficiency in the human body.

For example, there is a need to mitigate the adverse effects that result from the use of some types of drugs. Besides, there is also a need to increase the time cycle of drugs within the body and reduce non-specific activities. Current approaches in dealing with the challenges above have involved the use of inactive substances.

These inactive substances (commonly referred to as ‘prodrugs’) are biological substances that require the activation of enzymes to exude drugs to specific locations within the human body. ‘Prodrugs’ have thus helped to improve the delivery capabilities of drug molecules. In this direction, the use of modified ethylene glycol polymers that are biologically inactive to transfer active drug molecules to targeted locations within the human body is promising research.

In order to be effective in delivering drugs within the body, ethylene glycol molecules must be modified to increase the release and movement capabilities of drug molecules within the human body. Although “prodrug” molecules are useful in improving drug delivery capabilities, a number of shortcomings limit their usefulness. Protein enzymes can easily destroy ‘prodrug’ molecules. Besides, most ‘prodrug’ molecules have low solubility and a short lifespan (due to their susceptibility to quick excretion by the kidneys).

The tendency of ‘prodrugs’ to induce anti-body proteins against them has also limited their applicability in drug delivery systems. The use of ethylene glycol polymers as drug delivery agents helps to overcome all of the above challenges. Apart from overcoming most of the above disadvantages, ethylene glycol polymers will also provide some additional benefits when they used as drug delivery agents (for either protein molecules or low mass molecules).

First, the high solubility property of ethylene glycol polymers is useful in transferring active ingredients that have low solubility in water (such as several tumor drugs like camptothecin). Secondly, ethyl glycol agents can help to increase drug specificity by targeting targeted organs and tissues. Besides, ethylene glycol polymers are non-toxic and are easily removed from the body in their original form.

The process of developing ethylene glycol polymers to be used as drug agents can be grouped into two broad categories-first and second-generation polymerization. The first generation process of developing drug agents has met various shortcomings. For example, many drugs molecules from the first generation process of polymerization have suffered from contamination, unreliable bonds and general instability in the capacity of active molecules. Despite these shortcomings, some drugs (such as Adagen) from the first generation of polymerization are available in the current drug market.

The second generation of polymerization was developed to achieve three important goals. One of the goals of the second generation polymerization is to develop large ethylene glycol polymers. Here, the premise is to improve conjugating capabilities of ethylene glycol chains and enhance the capabilities of ethylene glycol chains to move drugs that have small molecules.

Secondly, second-generation polymers are useful for the creation of multi-functional drug agents that have different types of terminals. Among other applications, multi-functional drug agents can help to target specific cells, viruses, liposome, and tissues. Another reason behind the development of second-generation polymerization is to develop drug agents that have high molecular mass; thus, help in protecting the protein area. Drug agents that have a higher mass are also more effective in combating the effect of protein antibodies.

The production of ethylene glycol polymers is usually undertaken by polymerizing ethylene oxide in the presence of water/alcohol catalyst. This particular type of reaction will yield products that have one or two hydroxyl groups at their end chains. The products of ethylene oxide polymerization are usually normally distributed in terms of weight. Therefore, it is not possible to utilize the capabilities of ethylene glycol polymer molecules (drug agents) when they are still in their raw form.

However, ethylene glycol polymers can still be used as solvents for active ingredients. Multiple modifications are required to generate ethylene glycol polymers that can be used as drug agents. Here, the hydroxyl group that is present in ethylene glycol chains is altered to combine with different chemical groups through a series of reactive steps. Currently, there are a number of reactive ethylene glycol polymer chains in the drug market. Most of these ethylene glycol chains serve are not multi-functional.

Such a direction limits the competitive advantage of ethylene glycol polymers (because of their two end chain limitation) against other drug-carrying substances (which can serve multiple functions in their branched state). Ordinarily, drugs that have active ingredients with low biological activity will necessitate the administration of high dosages. The option would be to use a high concentration of conjugates; thus, resulting in high viscosity. Such difficulties have been mitigated through the development of ethylene glycol polymers that can a high drug delivery to polymer ratio. The development of multi-functional ethylene glycol polymers has increased the profile of ethylene glycol drug agents.

Multifunctional Ethylene Glycol Polymers for Drug Transfer

As observed in the previous discussion, ethylene glycol polymers have multiple properties that are advantageous in the production of drug transfer agents. However, ethylene glycol agents have suffered from loading limitations due to their two end chains. Such a direction would have decreased the applicability of ethylene glycol polymers in drug delivery. The limitations of ethylene glycol polymers in delivering drugs within the human body increase significantly with an increase in molecular weight.

Thankfully, new developments in polymer technology are facilitating the development of ethylene glycol polymers that can perform multifunctional activities. In the direction of developing multifunctional drug polymers that are based on ethylene glycol, several researchers have made proposals on the approaches that can be used to develop such polymers.

However, many proposals have integrated complex reactions that are expensive to conduct. A fundamental challenge that has resulted from an attempt to develop multifunctional drug polymers using polymer molecules with large molecular weights is the nonreactive nature of initial ethylene glycol molecules. It is also cumbersome to develop multi-branched molecules that can act as a backbone for the development of multi-functional polymers.

Researchers have proposed a new approach of developing multifunctional polymers by making use of copolymerization techniques to develop linear and multi-branched ethylene glycol polymers that have multiple hydroxyl groups at their end branches. Multi-branched ethylene glycol polymers that can be used as drug agents are now available in the drug market. Bonora et al. study have proposed a new approach that can be used to produce multi-branched polymers with high molecular weights. It is now possible to produce synthetic assemblages of ethylene glycol polymers that have high molecular weights and are multi-branched as well.

Here, ethylene glycol molecules with two hydroxyl groups at their end branches are reacted by a process that temporarily withholds the reactive capabilities of selected end branches. Thus, condensation reactions that follow different path routes result in the creation of multi-branched ethylene glycol polymers, which are then purified by appropriate procedures (such as extensive dialysis). Synthetic polymerization of double branched ethylene glycol polymers has generated high mass molecules that have up to six times more branches (metric measurements of length remain unchanged) than linear double branched molecules.

Although some complex steps must be followed to generate multi-functional ethylene glycol molecules, multiple benefits (that include enlarged load capabilities) are embedded in the final products. Currently, multifunctional ethylene glycol polymers for drug delivery purposes are produced on a small scale. A number of improvements will be required to produce multi-functional ethylene glycol-based polymers (for drug transportation) at a commercial scale.

If they are commercially produced, multi-functional ethylene glycol-based polymers are anticipated to significantly increase the efficiency of drug delivery within the human body. Although they are smaller than double branched ethylene glycol polymers, multi-branched polymers are capable of delivering larger volumes of drugs to targeted locations in the human body; thus, using a small volume of polymers to achieve high concentrations of drugs within the human body.

Since one of the additional bonds that they possess is urethral based, multi-branched ethylene glycol polymers are expected to be more bio-degradable than other types of multi-branched polymers. Besides, multi-branched ethylene glycol polymers guarantee a low polydispersity index since they are built from small units that have a low polydispersity index. There is a premise of developing derivatives that have reactive groups with a range of different chemical characteristics. Such a direction would make it possible to transfer different drug molecules through one conjugate.

Generally, multi-functional polymers that are based on ethylene glycol hold a promise for interesting developments in drug delivery systems. Researchers are exploring the possibility of using modified polymers to mitigate the problem of adverse drug effects. Many drugs that are used to destroy cancer cells can lead to adverse defects on the human body (including death). Multi-functional polymers provide a prospect of developing drug agents that will induce surface reactions on targeted cells only.

Here, the end branches of multifunctional cells are loaded with chemical groups that have dissimilar, yet complementary chemical properties; thus, enabling one branch end to attach to healthy cells and the other end branch to attach to targeted cells. Therefore, intended chemical reactions can then occur on targeted cells while leaving out healthy cells.

The prospect of solving the challenge of adverse drug effects lies in an array of many other prospects, which are anticipated from the development of multi-functional polymers that can transfer drugs. However, there is a need for plenty of more research to develop successful prototypes. Such prototypes must be easily producible at a commercial scale.

The Development of Artificial Body Organs and Tissues

Among the areas that have been of great interest to polymer scientists is the development of bio-medical products. Scientists have explored the usage of polymers as bone cement, artificial blood vessels, vertebral discs, among other products. Because they are compatible with the human body, ethylene glycol polymers are useful in developing bio-medical products. Multiple characteristics that are inherent in ethylene glycol products (including non-toxicity) make them suitable components of biomedical products. Often, the weaknesses of ethylene glycol polymers (such as low strength) are usually complemented with other materials that have desirable characteristics.

Coronary Stents

In 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legalized the use of coronary stents to restore normal blood movement in blocked arteries. These (coronary stents) are small, tube-shaped expandable metals, which can help to unclog blocked arteries after insertion into blocked areas of an artery. However, the use of metal stents was limited by several studies, which indicated that stent users had a high risk of developing serious coagulating diseases.

Researchers must have overlooked the incompatibility of metal stents with human blood. In the direction of addressing the coagulation problem that came with the use of metal stents, scientists developed a new generation of stents that had a cover of ethylene glycol polymers. Apart from anti-coagulating properties, ethylene glycol polymers added numerous benefits to metal stent devices. First, ethylene glycol polymers increased the mechanical strength and flexibility of stents; hence, making it easier for the devices to withstand shocks that are usually present during insertions.

Besides, ethylene glycol polymers are biodegradable and can be used for drug delivery purposes. Forces that may result from insertion procedures do not compromise the coatings of ethylene glycol polymers on sterns. Researchers have now developed stents that have drug-releasing capabilities, among other benefits that have resulted from the incorporation of ethylene glycol polymers. Ethylene glycol polymers have revolutionalized the industry of metal sterns. More than a million patients who have coagulation problems receive sterns (coated with ethylene glycol polymers) per year.

Bone Cement

Most of the bone cement that is currently in the market make great use of Plexiglas, among other components. The purpose of bone cement is to secure the movement of joints in the human body. Integrating bone cement into the human body involves the mixing of two types of substances. One substance contains powdered Plexiglas, a Barium Sulphate pacifier, and a peroxide inhibitor. The other substance consists of methyl methacrylate liquid that contains a dissolved accelerator.

When the above substances are mixed, methyl methacrylate dissolves plexiglass to produce a white paste. The accelerator initiates a series of polymerization reactions, which convert methyl methacrylate into Plexiglas. Thus, the polymerized Plexiglas forms bone cement at targeted joints. The Plexiglas that is formed during bone cementation attaches the metal attached to a targeted joint.

Part of the methyl methacrylate paste that does not react during cementation forms a soft area around the bone/plexiglass/metal joint that acts as a shock absorber. Since Methyl Methgacrylate is incompatible with both the bone tissues as well as the metal attachment, it is impossible to form a genuine bond between the three (bone, methyl methacrylate, and metal attachment.).

Bone cement that is formed using the above approach present three significant difficulties. First, the polymerization reaction that forms bone cement produces a significant amount of heat that leads to high temperatures (about 80 degrees Celsius) around bone tissues. Apart from destroying a considerable amount of surrounding tissues, high temperatures result in great discomfort for the patient; hence, necessitating the use of anesthesia. Moreover, a considerable amount of the mixture that is combined to form bone cement (about 10%) does not react; thus, leading to adverse effects for the patient.

Materials that have not reacted sufficiently during bone cementation are toxic to the human body. Clearly, the deficiencies that are present in the current generation of bone cementations compromise the safety of patients. Besides, the Plexiglas that is used to make bone cementations has strength limitations and will easily brittle under the strain of heavy loading. Studies indicate that as many as 25 percents of patients that have undergone bone implantation surgeries will require new implants within ten years.

Polymer scientists have proposed a number of approaches that can strengthen brittle materials like Plexiglas. The incorporation of polymers that have rubber-like characteristics into the structure of Plexiglas can mitigate the brittleness of Plexiglas. Here, three-branched ethylene glycol polymers can be linked into the structure of Plexiglas to increase strength capabilities.

The molecules of glycol polymers are able to link with Plexiglas molecules through covalent bonds; thus, creating rubber-like properties within the Plexiglas. Plexiglas materials that have a 10% concentration of ethylene glycol molecules exhibit desirable qualities (including enhanced strength, improved defection capabilities, and increased toughness) for bone cementation. However, the above methodology of developing bone cementation remains unexplored.

Vertebral Discs

The displacement of an intervertebral disc will result in enormous pain for a patient; thus, necessitating a surgical operation to remove the displaced vertebral. New tissues must occupy the position of the removed intervertebral disc to support the loads that strained the dislocated vertebral. Among the approaches that have been proposed by researchers to remedy the above anomaly is to replace dislocated inter-vertebral tissues with polymers that have similar properties to the vertebral disc. Here, a liquid ethylene glycol polymer can be placed in the cavity that was initially occupied by the removed intervertebral disc.

The liquid polymer will then transform into a solid that has desirable vascular properties to support incoming loads. The constituents of the liquid polymer that can be injected into the cavity area of the intervertebral disc react with nucleic acids to form a solid mass that complements surrounding tissues. Since nucleic acids around the cavity area initiate the polymerization of the injectable liquid, a covalent bond is formed between the developing solid and surrounding bones.

Here, it is noteworthy to observe that the covalent bonding, which is initiated by nucleic acids from surrounding tissues, prevents the leakage of the injected fluid into areas that are outside the cavity. The large chains that form during the polymerization of the injected fluid prevent the degradation of cavity material by surrounding enzymes. Currently, research on the use of injective fluid (with appropriate formulations) to fill cavities that are left by dislocated discs (which are removed during surgical operations) is yet to move to the clinical trial stage.

Artificial Arteries

The replacement of arteries is pre-requisite for patients that suffer from serious artery obstructions. To replace clogging arteries, patients must obtain donated arteries from individuals who have issues that are compatible with theirs. Efforts to replace clogging arteries with artificial ones are limited by the tendency of thin (about 4mm) plastic tubes to block when filled with human blood due to platelet adhesion.

Among the approaches that are under exploration in the direction of developing artificial arteries is the use of ethylene glycol polymer tubes. Since ethylene glycol polymer is compatible with human blood due to its anti-coagulating properties, it can be used in the production of artificial arteries. Artificial arteries developed have so far proven effective in rat and pig experiments. More studies are required to take the development of artificial arteries to the next stage-the development of artificial arteries that can be used in the human circulatory system.

Prospectus

Researchers have proposed multiple prospective products that can evolve from new technologies in the polymerization of ethylene glycol plastic. A number of prospective ideas in the plastic industry were highlighted in the previous section. Ethylene glycol polymer has many desirable properties that are suitable for the development of biomedical materials. New approaches in polymerization procedures with the aim of developing ethylene glycol plastics that possess desirable qualities are heavily employed in developing multiple products for the market.

Some of the ethylene glycol products that are still at the research stage include external support devices for blood circulation, artificial tissues, and organs such as arteries, and implants. Among the most exciting areas, which hold great promise in the use of ethylene glycol polymers is the development of smart delivery systems for drugs. If successful, smart systems that can systematically release drugs to targeted cells will mitigate the problem of adverse effects, among other challenges that are inherent in the current system of drug use.

An advantageous aspect that is driving the evolution of a new generation of ethylene glycol plastics is the attempt by researchers to address existing market gaps in the medical industry. Among other things, proposed products are intended to address the deficiencies of current products in the market (such as drug inadequacies, the ineffectiveness of tissue implants in loading shocks and the absence of artificial arteries that do not clog). Since research in the development of new ethylene glycol plastics is mostly specialized, involved parties are well educated and informed individuals who have the capacity to develop innovative ideas in the field.

Still, a number of challenges must be overcome if the ideas of researchers (in the field of ethylene glycol polymerization) are to move to the stage of commercial development. Many of the new ethylene glycol products that are currently at the research stage of development are expensive to produce.

In many cases, production steps that are required to manufacture proposed products involve complex and cumbersome processes that are expensive to implement. The development of new delivery systems for drugs is a good example of a process that is complex, expensive and difficult to implement. It is therefore fruitful for researchers to focus on designing development processes that are cheap to implement at a commercial scale.

Many of the ethylene glycol products that have been proposed for the commercial market are still at the research stage of production. As a result, several bottlenecks must be overcome if the proposed products are to reach the stage of commercial production. First, proposed products must be taken for clinical trials. Enormous funding and cooperation from a relevant professional is pre-requisite for successful clinical trials. Clinical trials will lay a foundation for the refinement of proposed products; thus, develop products that are more effective in addressing existing gaps in the current market.

In many cases, clinical trials are limited by the cooperation of marketing companies such as pharmaceutical companies. Although new generations of drug delivery systems (based on ethylene glycol polymers) exist, many pharmaceutical companies are reluctant to conduct trials on new delivery systems. Besides, it is also important to address safety challenges that may come with the proposed ethylene glycol products. We cannot tell for sure if proposed bone cementations, among other internal devices, will guarantee the safety of patients.

More studies are required to ascertain the safety of proposed ethylene glycol products before releasing them into the market. It is also important for researchers to work with production scientists with the aim of developing a feasible model that can set the stage the mass production of prototypes. Among all the new generation of products that I have considered, drug delivery systems are the most promising.

If they are successfully developed, new drug delivery systems will address many challenges that have limited the capacity of drugs to counter multiple conditions within the human body. The capacity of new drug delivery systems to target specific cells and tissues, as well as their capacity to mitigate adverse effects hold a promise for the treatment of cancer tumors and other chronic conditions. However, pharmaceutical companies must actively participate in the development of new drug delivery systems for the venture to succeed.

Conclusion

Ethylene glycol polymers are increasingly finding new areas of usefulness in the medical field. Because of their desirable characteristics, ethylene glycol polymers have been used extensively in the production of multiple pharmaceutical products. A range of desirable qualities like as high solubility in water and many organic solvents, a degradable nature, non- toxicity and a boiling point that is linear to molecular mass is inherent in ethylene glycol polymers. Products such as detergents, drug supports, among other medical products consist of ethylene glycol polymers.

Building on the initial applications of ethylene glycol products in the medical field, researchers are developing innovations that are based on the unique characteristics of ethylene glycol polymers. Many of these innovations are still at the initial stage of development (research).

Although innovations that are based on ethylene glycol polymers hold a promise of altering multiple bio-medical and medical products, several bottlenecks must be overcome to actualize these innovations into marketable products. If they are to penetrate existing markets, innovations that are based on ethylene glycol polymers must not only be effective in addressing current gaps in the market, they must also be affordable and easy to produce.

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IvyPanda. (2020, May 8). Polymer Based on Ethylene Glycol - Chemistry. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/polymer-based-on-ethylene-glycol-chemistry/

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IvyPanda. 2020. "Polymer Based on Ethylene Glycol - Chemistry." May 8, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/polymer-based-on-ethylene-glycol-chemistry/.

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