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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – Psychology Research Paper

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Updated: Apr 24th, 2020


Post-traumatic disorder refers to a serious unease disorder that can build up following the experience of any occurrence that ends up in psychosomatic disturbance. It is also popularly referred to as post-traumatic stress disorder, abbreviated PTSD. The event leading up to such kind of a disorder may entail the danger of losing one’s life or that of some other person, it may as well involve a person’s own or someone else’s corporeal, sexual, or psychosomatic veracity (Lindley, Carlson & Benoit, 2004, p. 940).

Such occurrences end up overpowering the individual’s capability to muddle through. As a result of psychosomatic disturbance, post-traumatic stress disorder is not as much of frequent and more long-term than the more usually seen acute stress response.

Warning signs for post-traumatic stress disorder consist of re-experiencing the initial disturbance(s) by way of cut backs or incubuses, evading of spurs linked with the trauma, and greater than before stimulation – such as trouble falling or staying in slumber, irritation and hyper-alertness. Prescribed symptomatic standards call for the warning signs to last more over and above one month and result in considerable hurt in societal, professional, or other essential areas of operation.

Description of the disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder is categorized as nervousness upset, as aforementioned, and is set apart by aversive fretfulness-linked occurrences, manners, and physiological rejoinders that come up following contact with an expressively disturbing occurrence.

Its characteristics carry on for a period lasting more than 30 days, which sets it apart from the short-lived acute stress disorder. These enduring post-traumatic signs result in considerable distractions of one or more vital areas of life function. It usually has three secondary forms; heightened, never-ending, and delayed-onset.

Post-traumatic stress disorder is thought to be as a result of either corporeal disturbance or emotional disturbance, or more often a mishmash of both. Studies show that the disorder is more expected to be as a result of corporal or psychosomatic disturbance induced by humans such as sexual assault, battle, or radical attack than disturbance(s) as a result of natural catastrophes.

Probable starting places of disturbances comprise of experiencing or observing early days or grown-up corporeal, emotional or sexual assault. To add to this, witnessing occurrences seen to be life-threatening like corporeal attack, accidents, drug dependence, poor health, therapeutic problems, or working in situations open to the elements of war (especially combatants) or adversity (disaster service worker) (Secretary, 2005, p. 2).

A number of researches show that adult post-traumatic stress disorder and other posttraumatic disorders in parental psychosomatic operation can, in spite of a distressed parent’s best labors, get in the way of their reaction to their young one as well as their child’s rejoinder to disturbance.

Parents with violence-drawn post-traumatic disorders may, for instance, by accident render their children toward developmentally out of place sadistic media because of their requirement to deal with their own emotional deregulation. Irrefutable results point out that a failure make available enough cure to children after they undergo a distressing experience, hinging upon their susceptibility and the rigorousness of the disturbance, will at the end of the day lead to post-trauma stress disorder signs in later life.

Treatment options of the disorder

There exists three main forms of treatment of this disorder; preventive treatments, psychotherapeutic interventions and medications. Under preventive treatments there lies psychological debriefing which is the mainly used intervention.

This treatment is easily given to victims after a traumatic occurrence. It is basically discussions that are directed toward allowing the person(s) to straightforwardly face up to the occurrence and share their outlook with the psychotherapist and to help configure their reminiscences of the occurrence (Lindley, Carlson & Benoit, 2004, p. 945). As much as this is the most common treatment it is the east effective as compared to others.

Risk targeted interventions lie under preventive treatments also and these are those that try to take the edge off definite determining information or occurrences. It can aim at mocking up ordinary behaviors, tutoring on an undertaking or giving information on the occurrence.

Psychobiological interventions have as well recorded accomplishment, particularly with cortisol. These interventions aim at biological alterations that take place following a disturbing occurrence.

They as well try to chemically change erudition or recollection configuration. Cortisol interventions following a disturbing occurrence have been successful in taking the edge off later analysis of post-traumatic stress disorder. Cortisol is in most times lesser in persons who are at risk of post-traumatic stress disorder following a disturbing occurrence than their opposite number(s). Through raising cortisol quantities to standard levels this has been illustrated to trim down stimulation post occurrence likewise put a stop to GR upregulation.

Stepped collaborative care refers to a form of preventive treatment where persons who are at danger are kept an eye on for signs. As sigs of post-traumatic stress come out the level of care is added to so as to take care of those signs.

Psychotherapeutic interventions offer another form of treatment for this disorder. The cognitive behavior therapy falls under this category and aims at altering the way a disturbed person feels and acts by altering the ways of judgment and/or conduct accountable for unconstructive emotions. This therapy has been confirmed to be an effectual intervention for post-traumatic stress disorder (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes & Nelson, 1995, p. 1048).

In fact it is at present the standard of care for post-traumatic stress disorder by the US Department of Defense. In this therapy, sufferers learn to make out contemplations that make them feel terrified or annoyed, and substitute them with less disturbing ones. The aim is to be aware of the way in which some thoughts about result in post-traumatic stress-linked anxiety. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and interpersonal psychotherapy as well fall under this category and have been found to be effective.

Medicines can also be used to tone down the disorder. A multiplicity of prescriptions has exhibited connected benefit in trimming down post-trauma stress disorder signs. However, there is no clear medicine for this disorder.

Positive signs such as re-experiencing, hyper-alertness, greater than before stimulation, among others, act in response in a better manner to medicine as compared to negative signs. These negative signs include evasion, pulling out, among others. It is suggested that any medicine trial takes place for a period leastways 6 – 8 weeks.


Post-traumatic stress disorder can be dealt with best by early recognition and treatment so that sufferers can get back to their normal lives. The capacity to test persons would be of immense aid in treating the ones at danger of the disorder before progress of the syndrome (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes & Nelson, 1995, p. 1060). If left to take place for prolonged periods of time then it may be too late to help the victims overcome it, and even if it is eventually done, a lot of time and other associated resources will have been wasted.

Reference List

Kessler R. C., Sonnega A., Bromet E., Hughes M., Nelson C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52 (12): 1048–60.

Lindley S. E., Carlson E. B., Benoit M. (2004). Basal and dexamethasone suppressed salivary cortisol concentrations in a community sample of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 55 (9): 940–5.

Secretary, N. (2005). No Across-the-Board Review of PTSD Cases. The Department of Veterans Affairs.

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