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Control Systems and Their Purpose
The process of project controlling is a complicated system of various actions which requires a lot of experience and efforts. There are three main types of control systems: cybernetic, go/no-go, and post control. The most typical form is cybernetic control. Its core element is the ability to operate automatically. There is a subtype of cybernetic control system called a negative feedback loop. This system’s function is to decrease inconsistencies with the standard. Go/no-go control is performed using testing which shows coherence with the particular demands.
Project management employs this control most frequently as it can be applied at all stages of the project. Go/no-go control is helpful as many features of project implementation demand that the specific requirements should be fulfilled. This type of control meets some challenges as it is not always easy to identify which aspects are necessary for the project. Pest control is performed after the project’s completion. While this type of control may seem unnecessary and unproductive, it is not so. Employing post control allows to avoid further mistakes and increases the probability of future projects’ success. Pest control is employed via a special document that comprises four parts: (1) the project goals, (2) milestones and budgets, (3) final report of the outcomes, and (4) propositions for project enhancement. A control system should answer the question about the project’s faults and the ways of overcoming them.
To control change, the following measures should be taken:
- project documents should contain an explanation of how applications for change will be presented and accomplished;
- after the project’s approval, any changes need to be included in a change order which will contain a description of the suggested alterations and a risk analysis description;
- those who introduce a change have to discuss it with the project manager before formulating it;
- a change needs to be confirmed in written form by the customer’s and the company’s representatives;
- when a change has been confirmed, it should be included in the project plan.
Project Audit and Risk Analysis
The audit is a comprehensive inspection of the project management and its components. The primary audit should be performed at the initial stages of the project. The earlier an obstacle is found out, the simpler it is to overcome it. Early audits concentrate on the technical side of the project to ascertain that the core technical issues have been fixed or are in the process of being resolved. Audits done after the initial project’s phase are not so important for the project but are valuable to the parent firm. With the development of the project, technical problems become less significant, giving way to correspondence to budget and schedule. At the final project stage, the greatest attention is paid to management issues. Post-project audits have three basic goals. First of all, a post-project audit frequently is an obligation as the customer requested for it in the contract. Secondly, such audit is an essential element of the post-project report which is the core source of managerial response to the parent organization. Thirdly, a post-project audit allows calculating the expenditures of the project. Therefore, there is no perfect timing for auditing since it has various purposes at every project stage, and each of these objectives is important.
The purpose of risk analysis is to assess the probable results of a policy and the likelihood of their happening. Most frequently, risk analysis is performed to correlate two or more plans or strategies.
Project Termination: Types and Reasons
There are several varieties of project termination, namely addition, extinction, integration, and starvation. Termination by extinction may occur either because the project has reached its aims or because it has failed. Also, extinction may be caused by the outside environment changes. Termination by addition happens when a project proves to be successful, and the parent firm makes the project it’s a formal part. Termination by integration is the most frequently employed method of finishing an advantageous project. The personnel, property, and operations of the project are divided among the constituent parts of the parent firm. The project output is assigned to the customers’ or the parent organization’s operating system. Termination by starvation is not a termination but rather a deprivation of budget. Such termination takes place when nobody wants to admit the project’s failure. Eliminating the budget leads to a gradual cessation of the project.
The four basic reasons for project termination are:
- insignificance of the project organization;
- inadequate encouragement from senior management;
- a wrong choice of a project manager;
- insufficient planning.
The problem of Control of Change
Control of change presents a major difficulty for project managers as it may lead to altering the whole project. For instance, if a senior officer is dissatisfied with some detail in the final product, he/she may cause a complete redesign of the product. Such a decision abrogates the previously accepted design, plan, and funds, which presents a huge challenge to the project manager. Therefore, dealing with change is the biggest trouble admitted by project managers.