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In the near past, there are two principal events that influence the nature of conflicts in the present times. The first being world wars I and II and the next was the rise of Nationalism. The writer of the reviewed article starts by defining ‘terrorism’ by quoting the US Department of Defense definition as ‘the calculated use of unlawful violence to inculcate fear, and usually intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in goals that are either political, religious or ideological.’ If one may ask, how did the world wars and the rise in Spirit of nationalism possibly led to the state of terrorism in the world today? What is the connection stuck between the two? Therefore, this essay looks into depth of these queries.
Causes of terrorism
World wars I and II kindled the passions and hope of Nationalists throughout the world and this destroyed the legitimacy of the international order and the governance systems. Thus nationalism became more passionate at the start of the last century. Nationalism became an influential power in the focus of the group of a variety of royal territories. Later on in the early ages of the last century, many countries became more considerate of the concepts of race and ethnic issues to an extent that political developments that operated at international levels commenced their support for those concepts. This saw the engulfing of minority ethnic groups by others, never to exist anymore! But what could they do? Terrorism was the answer; it was the only way a minority group could let itself known by the larger group whose sympathy was sought. Examples include the Irish and Macedonians in Europe. Irish succeeded while the latter failed. The other factor that fueled the rampant use of terror activities in the quest for ‘independence and recognition’ was the attitude that ‘everybody was doing it- why can’t we?’ The efforts to discourage this attitude from people and communities did not bear fruits but only raised the intensities of the conflicts. More superior weapons were employed to destroy the enemies’ civilian populace (which were often targeted despite being forbidden by rules) and the economy-maintaining ultrastructures thus sending it to a paralyzing fall. Most important forces sustaining the supporters and opposition association using terrorists’ strategy were analyzed as acceptable of their legitimacy.
Throughout the instantaneous postwar phase, terrorism was a premeditated alternative by leaders of pro-independence rebellions. Unbeaten operations for self-governance from royal rule took place all over the globe, and a lot of working terror campaigns as a sustainable approach. When terror campaigns were put into action, it was exercised within the plan of superior activities, and matched with opinionated and military action. Still while terror campaigns dominated, the other sides of pro-autonomy struggles, such as the Palestinian battle against Israel; it was pooled with other activities. It is worth noting that the leaders of the terror groups enjoyed the free gifts of military training and weapons got from the supporting international body.
Modern terrorism started by Palestine’s PFLP hijacked an El Al airliner in 1968 with a specific operational aim on Israel. This action gathered a lot of international concern. In addition, the cooperation of extremist organizations which conducted these operations went a notch higher by crossing borders and becoming international, for instance, the combined function amid the (PFLP) and (JRA) which began in 1974. This review explains the recent developments in the history of terrorism, how it began in the post-world war and its advancements till late 1970s. it has looked into the possible factors that accelerated its spread and practice.
Terrorism-A review of ‘Terrorism Research.’ 2008. Web.