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A 50-year old male visited a nurse with a purpose of smoking cessation. While this process is considered complicated due to the smoking habit being a psychological trait, there are steps that should be followed for a successful outcome. Educating patients about smoking risks is an essential part of the cessation process, as well as medication and psychological support. This paper provides a plan for a mentioned individual that he should follow remain healthy.
Pack-years are the concept that is used to determine the health risks of a smoking patient (Petro, 2012). It is calculated by multiplying the average number of cigarette packs a day by the amount of years devoted to this habit. Thus, a man from the case has been smoking one pack a day for the last ten years. It means that he has ten pack-years behind him. Determining this value is important for a nurse due to the necessity of treatment planning. The number of screening procedures depends on pack-year, as they are associated with the risk of lung cancer and heart disease (Fucito, Czabafy, Hendricks, Kosten, Richardson, & Toll, 2016).
Evidence demonstrates that even a brief notice about the necessity of smoking cessation given by nurses in primary care is able to reduce the number of patients with this habit (Raw, McNeill, & West, 1999). Thus, promoting healthy lifestyle should become the basis for an educational plan for this individual. A nurse must address several lifestyle factors that are potentially important to the patient. Firstly, economic reasons should be described. People who smoke tend to spend more money on health care since they tend to fall ill more often (Krueger, Turner, Krueger, & Ready, 2014). Secondly, if the man will keep smoking, there is a high chance he will receive a serious disease that would prevent him from enjoying his future retirement.
The most important step in the management plan is to determine a date when the man should quit smoking (Scholz, Stadler, Ochsner, Rakow, Hornung, & Knoll, 2016). It would act as a psychological milestone, after crossing which a patient should not go back to his former habit. A series of screening tests should be organized to detect any health issues associated with smoking. A nurse should also consult the man regarding his way of life and any specific conditions that could contribute to his habit. In a case if it appears that there are such conditions, a nurse should offer alternative ways to manage the problem.
A nurse must ensure that the patient follows all the prescriptions and behavior guidelines. Although this is not possible to determine by fact, the patient himself must realize the importance of treatment and be responsible for his actions. Medical treatment would include prescribing substances that would transport nicotine to the man’s body without smoking. A nicotine plaster is one of such items. Non-pharmacologic treatment is also reasonable, especially when it is determined that the habit has psychological reasons. For instance, smoking is often a way of relaxation (Robertson, Iosua, McGee, & Hancox, 2015). A nurse should discuss alternative actions of reaching relaxation or enjoyment.
Follow-Up and Evaluation
A follow-up plan would include the number of sessions that should be associated with further consulting and test procedures. A nurse should ask the man about his progress on smoking cessation. If there are any obstacles, they should be discussed to find a solution. Tests should be run to determine the positive dynamics of the patient’s health state. Seeing values like heart performance increase should serve as a motivating element for the man. Evaluation should take place two weeks before the end-of-smoking day, two weeks after it, one month, and half a year consequently.
Fucito, L. M., Czabafy, S., Hendricks, P. S., Kosten, C., Richardson, D., & Toll, B. A. (2016). Pairing smoking-cessation services with lung cancer screening: A clinical guideline from the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence and the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. Cancer, 122(8), 1150-1159. Web.
Krueger, H., Turner, D., Krueger, J., & Ready, E. A. (2014). The economic benefits of risk factor reduction in Canada: Tobacco smoking, excess weight and physical inactivity. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 105(1), 69-78.
Petro, J. (2012). That the effects of smoking should be measured in pack-years: Misconceptions 4. British Journal of Cancer, 107(3), 406-407.
Raw, M., McNeill, A., & West, R. (1999). Smoking cessation: Evidence based recommendations for the healthcare system. BMJ, 318, 182-185.
Robertson, L., Iosua, E., McGee, R., & hancox, R. J. (2015). Non-daily, low-rate daily, and high-rate daily smoking in young adults: A 17-year follow-up. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1-7. Web.
Scholz, U., Stadler, G., Ochsner, S., Rackow, P., Hornung, R., & Knoll, N. (2016). Examining the relationship between daily changes in support and smoking around a self-set quit date. Health Psychology, 35(5), 514-517. Web.