Organizations deploy various strategies to ensure that they enhance their performance both in the short and in the long term. Training and development help in the provision of a new set of skills and knowledge that are required to enhance innovation and creativity of employees. Forces in the operational environment for an organisation fuel the need of achieving competitive advantage.
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Such forces include technological changes and changes in competition. The current research claims that the effectiveness of training and development is a function of the capacity of training and development to reflect the desired outcomes of an organization at national and global levels.
In this effort, the HR must play the function of selection and recruitment effectively to ensure hiring of people who have the capacity to develop thorough training by engaging in the process of training and development.
Effective training and development approaches at organizational and global levels foster career development. Besides, they place emphasis on talent management, mentoring, and development in accordance with the best HR practices of selection and recruitment.
Organizations encounter challenges of changing work environments. The main challenges include developing people to ensure that they acquire requite skills to enable them meet the emerging changes. According to Revels and Morris, “rapid change requires skilled and knowledgeable workforce with employees who are adaptive, flexible, and focused on the future” (2012, p.63).
Human resource management arm of an organization has the responsibility of developing an organization’s workforce. The main aim of training and development in organizations is to enhance the performance of employees. For organizations seeking to build their success in the short and long run, human resource is organized in such a manner that it permits all employees to develop skills and knowledge.
This suggests that effective training and development programs within an organization require non-bureaucratic human resource organizational structures. Bureaucracy hinders collective development of people within an organization.
Employees are interested in working for organizations, which foster development of their skill bases. Consequently, human resource develops people to ensure that they acquire supervisory skills, gain basic skills for performing organizational tasks, and develop their careers and professional technical skills. Training and development consume organizational resources, such as time and finance.
Although the goals of organizations focus at increasing productivity and profitability through the reduction of costs, literature on training and development, as a function f human resource arm of an organization, claim that the endeavor is important for various reasons.
For example, Ruppe (2006) claims, “employees with upgraded skills and equipped to deal with the changing demands of the workplace have higher morale, career satisfaction, creativity, and motivation” (p.38). This implies that such employees have increased productivity together with higher responsiveness in terms of meeting organizational objectives.
To achieve success of an organisation, it is important for organizations to invest in effective training and development programs for human resource. Based on this supposition, the focus of this research paper is to discuss the effectiveness of training and development on organizations’ employees in an organizational and worldwide level.
Roles of Training and Development in Human Resource
Human resource management embraces various roles and responsibilities, including strategies as well as transactional roles that are operative in an organization. Rate of change portrayed in conducting HR activities measures the quality of the human resource. Growth and productivity in an organization depend massively on human resource.
As the driving force of organizational success, human resource should display competence by creating flexible, focused, and innovative employees. To refurbish and maintain the human resource, companies invest in refreshing processes of updating their personnel with the appropriate training to keep them vibrant to enhance sustainability of the life of an organization.
Programs and strategies designed to facilitate the perpetuity of personnel development ensure well-equipped workforce that matches the organizational goals. Hence, it is crucial to understand that besides training and development, there are many other functions in the umbrella of HR mandates within an organization.
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For instance, a survey by the Society for Human Resource Management found out that recruitment, compensation, and succession are held with more significance by some organizations in comparison with training and development (2008, p.12). Employees are evaluated to determine the skills and development requirements before being engaged in training and development programs.
In fact, the desired performance that is reflected by various departments in an organization emanate from knowledgeable, skilful, and inventive workforce. Training and development equip and enhance employees with upgraded skills, which enable them cope with the demands for organizational change and organizational competitiveness.
Training and development foster growth, thus enabling employees to utilise their potential to attain their individual goals in addition to organizational objectives. The chief purpose for any training and development program is to raise worker’s self-esteem in a bid to enhance job satisfaction, creativity, and enthusiasm to carry out their jobs (Sveiby, 2009).
Professional and management development trainings nurture leadership talents and sense of responsibility among staff members. Consequently, employers develop the capacity to carry out the necessary performance review relevant to development goals without prejudice.
From the above suppositions, organizations need to embark on developing and updating leaders and supervisors on the current core curriculum requirements to enable them liaise well with the demands of the rapidly changing organizations.
This suggests that human resource professionals need to have the consciousness to develop attentiveness to diverse ways of meeting the goals of an organization through training and development (Sveiby, 2009, p. 497).
The modern technology is highly demanding and tremendously evolving, thus prompting the necessity of seeking specially trained expertise by either recruitment or outsourcing. This implies that training or development on human resources plays a vital role in the struggles for molding an organization to reach its set goals and objectives.
Developing Effective Training and Development Programs
Effective training and development programs at organizational and global levels concentrate on specific aspects of enhancing performance of employees. One of such aspects is the enhancement of career development of employees, mentorship, talent management, and recruitment and selection processes.
Career Development and Effective Training and Development
Career development is a continuous process for refining and/or enhancing the acquisition of knowledge and skills. It also comprises efforts to enhance mastery of the job techniques coupled with professional development while not negating the efforts to enhance career planning (Sveiby, 2009, p.498).
At an organizational level, effective career development programs are crucial in enhancing people’s ability to execute organizational tasks with greater precision. Professional development transcends above knowledge and skills that are required for employees to perform their job descriptions, although such developments are pivotal in aiding employees to develop capacities to perform their jobs better.
Career development is an ongoing process. As new technologies and other changes in the operations environment of an organization occur, appropriate change is required in the career development programs adopted by an organization.
Sveiby, (2009) supports this assertion by further adding that due to the consistent changes that are encountered in the modern-day organizations’ operational environment, career development programs both at organizational and global levels require employers to put in place strategies for enabling their employees to review and conduct reviews of their goals and objectives in their career lives (p.498).
The goal of human resource arm of an organization is to deploy talent pools and potentials of employees to enhance competitive advantage for an organization. Therefore, effective career development programs focus on areas of development in the career lives of employees that are vital to the realization of an organization’s mission and future growth and performance anticipations in comparison with the competitive market forces.
Effective training and development programs incorporate perspectives of career development for employees for various reasons. According to Lombardo and Eichinger, “the current information about the organization and future trends helps employees create more realistic career development goals” ((2008, p.143).
This implies that any effort to enhance the success of an organization in the unknown future starts with development of preparedness to embrace change. Change is well implemented when employees possess the requisite skills and knowledge for successful execution of their organizational mandates in new ways.
In this extent, career development programs facilitate the development of learning opportunities at organizational and global levels. Career development also sets the foundations of promotion of employees. This consideration is crucial since mechanisms of lateral movement of profiles of employees within an organization are important in career satisfaction (Cohn, Khurana & Reeves, 2005, p.62).
Promotion comes with a delegation of responsibilities. This helps in building confidence in employees in their contributions to the operation and success of an organization. In fact, delegation encompasses one of the key ways of enhancing motivation of employees when money reward systems such as salary increments cease from being sources of motivation.
While determining the people to delegate responsibilities to, experience and knowledge are important in the determination of the effectiveness of a given employee to execute the roles of a given job position. In this regard, “career planning or development clarifies the match between organizational and individual employee goals” (Cohn, Khurana & Reeves, 2005, p.64).
When an organization requires new talents in the effort to meet the emerging market changes in the form of technological changes, human resources have the mandate of conducting recruitments followed by training of the new staff to align them with organizational culture.
Through this process, it is important for an organization seeking to gain long-term success to ensure that it remains cost-effective (Lombardo & Eichinger, 2008, p.144). This underlines the importance of deploying mechanisms for enhancing growth of talents and knowledge of the exiting employees at organizational and global perspectives.
Career development is one of the ways of achieving these concerns. Apart from saving costs to enhance the profitability of an organization, enhancement of employee productivity through motivational and job satisfaction programs is also important.
Upon considering the importance of career development in enhancing the success of organizations, the major question that rises concerns the mechanisms deployed by an organization to enhance effective career development of employees at organizational and global levels. Successful and effective career development programs are designed to meet the needs of employees’ career growth needs.
According to Lombardo and Eichinger, such programs “perform annual individual development plan and career discussions with employees besides requiring other supervisors in a department to do the same” (2008, p.147). This requires specific human resource personnel, especially departmental supervisors, to take accountability for the capacity of the program to meet its objectives and goals.
Emphasis is also placed on the creation of the ways of fostering the provision of avenues for skill development, for instance, “job rotations, mentoring, creation of internship programs, coaching, and cross-training” (Lombardo & Eichinger, 2008).
From this assertion, effective training and development programs that are developed with chief intention of fostering career development of employees call for human resource personnel to recognize that they have a noble mandate to ensure that employees develop above the current knowledge bases and skill levels by supporting and evaluating the success of the career development programs.
At both global and organizational platforms, such programs align with educational and development policies together with guidelines for procedures and policies that are acceptable within an organization or industry in which an organization operates.
Talent Management, Training, and Development
Apart from career development, effective training and development programs at organizational and global levels are designed to foster talent development. In this extent, human resource management also serves the principal functions of supporting and encouraging talent growth.
Organizations recognize that while operating in a dynamic business environment, competitive advantage is a function of how effectively they manage talent potentials of their employees.
In fact, talent management is an essential component for enhancing the success of organizations in the private and public sectors (Cohn, Khurana & Reeves, 2005). It encompasses “critical processes that ensure that organizations have quantity and quality people in place to meet their current and future business priorities” (Ruppe, 2006, p.39).
The process referred here covers all the essential aspects of employees’ life cycle, including performance management, selection, succession, and development.
Therefore, talent management covers “everything that is done to recruit, retain, develop, reward, and make people perform as well as strategic workforce planning” (Handfield-Jones, Michaels & Axelrod, 2001, p.54). Using talent management to help in gaining organizational success places an enormous emphasis on the need to align talent management strategies with organizational business strategies.
Effective training and development programs factor in the perspectives of sustainable talent management. Organizing future developments of organization from the basis of sustainability efforts forms significant strategies for enhancing the performance of an organization financially, environmentally, and socially.
This strategy is particularly important since organizations cannot build sustainable brand portfolios without the aid of an innovative and talented workforce (Huselid & Becker, 2011, p.422). In fact, “talent management involves the single most important HR activity in any sustainable organization” (McDonnell, Lamare, Gunnigle & Lavelle, 2010, p.150).
The goal of developing training and development programs within an organization is to prepare an organization to face proactively the future anticipated changes, which may pose negative effects to the operation of an organization. Without effective strategies for talent management, organizations become exposed to the risk of obsolescence at both organizational and global levels.
Effective training and development at organizational level requires a means of talent management performance and evaluation. This process starts with planning. Planning is necessary in determining various strategies and goals for different work units when measuring talent potential for employees (Levenson, 2011, p.35).
Once goals and strategies are established, the next step entails conducting a search to determine the employees who fit into these units to enhance realization of the goals of various units.
This process includes the alignment of goals with employees’ capabilities (McCauley & Wakefield, 2006, p.40). Performance levels in various unit tasks are then conducted to determine the fits between employees and the performance expectations.
When human resource training and development programs complete the planning phase, the next step for implementation of a performance management process for measuring employees’ talents is assessment. Effective assessment process requires performance dialogue accompanied by continuous garnering of feedback from employees to determine the degree of achievement of work unit anticipations.
In contrast with traditional approaches of measuring performance of employees, which Lewis and Heckman (2006) and Levenson (2011) say are largely ineffective, performance dialogue can yield success since employees are provided with adequate information on what they are expected to do at a particular timeframe.
The feedback deployed to make decisions on the appropriateness of a given employee to fit in a particular position is developed based on the fundamentals of the ability of the employee to achieve work unit requirements. This capacity reflects the talent potential of employees.
The approach of measuring the talent of employees is based on the realisation of specific preset expectations of a given job demand without any specified criteria for accomplishing them. This means that employees need to look for innovative ways of executing their duties to achieve the expected results within minimal time and with optimal resource utilization.
The impact of such an approach is that employees cease to consider the current approach of execution of various job elements as the only possible way. Hence, they are able to grow in terms of innovation and creativity in the development of more efficient and effective ways of doing similar tasks in the future in the effort to save organizations monetary and time resources.
Effective talent management, as a key component of effective training and development approaches adopted by an organization operating in global platforms, requires one to embrace several concepts expressed in the talent pools and review processes. The first and the most important concept is talent identification.
This concept is done to assess the existing organizational employee potential so that they can be developed to yield organizational competitiveness. In this process, every manager assesses the capacity of an employee to perform high-level tasks relative to his or her current grades.
This assessment is based on the demonstrated individual knowledge, skills, and creativity in the execution of leadership roles (Lewis & Heckman, 2006). In case the results of this assessment show that employees are capable of performing tasks performed by people in higher grades, they are considered highly talented.
Readiness assessment is an important aspect for talent assessment constituted in the training and development programs that are affective at organizational and global levels. Persons identified as highly talented must be prepared to succeed various incumbents (Lewis & Heckman, 2006, p.151).
This assessment is important for various high-ranking managers while preparing annual talent review plans reflecting leadership gaps and other managerial metrics. Without assessment, an organization’s talent management program fails to identify particular areas for employees training and development to enhance their productivity both presently and in the future.
Another important constituent of talent management tied within the paradigms of effective training and development involves feeder roles identification. This encompasses building robust and sustainable leadership pipeline (Lewis & Heckman, 2006). Such an endeavor requires the existence of various positions for filling by persons identified as talented for similar positions.
Talent development managers who are also responsible for development of effective training and development strategies have the obligation to identify various positions existing below the highest leadership teams and label them as feeder roles.
These roles need to possess sufficiently broad opportunities to facilitate growth of experience and talent showcased by employees as they progress from fundamental to positions that are more senior. Tracking of feeder roles is crucial for performance reporting purposes, which are incredible for talent reviews at both organizational and global levels.
In the context of effective training and development, talent management ensures that expertise of employees improves over time as they gain experience while working in the organization. This goal is accomplished through the development of accurate staffing models, which identify various vital skills while acknowledging the role of proper harnessing of the competences of employees in enhancing organizational success.
This helps to improve the functional expertise of the organization by aiding it to arrive at decisions informed by the existing talent potentials (McCauley & Wakefield, 2006, p.41).
Based on this assertion, effective training and development programs, which are built on perspective of talent management, as one of the functions of human resource arm of an organization, need to develop the capacity to react more effectively to situations emerging from the changing operational environment that requires improvement of an organization in terms of innovation and creativity.
Successful organizations at national and global levels object to improve their expertise functional areas through identification of areas of their strength with the help of competences, which are required to execute specific tasks. This aspect is measured through employee assessments, together with performance ratings (Lewis, & Heckman, 2006, p.152).
Hence, leaders for training and development programs within an organization need to deploy talent management objectives in measuring functional expertise that are driven by objective data. This helps in the engagement of employees in talent development conversations tied within the facets of attaining the anticipated functional outcomes of an organization.
Such conversations are pivotal in ensuring that organizations are capable of identifying precisely the required talents that should be achieved within departments or business functional units. Conversation also aids in the identification of skills, which are required to support effectively the future strategies of any organization seeking to utilise its people as the chief source of their competitive advantage.
At global levels, there are several talent management approaches deployed by organizations that emphasize the importance of effective training and development in enhancing their future performance in a business environment that is characterized by constant change.
In such organizations, capturing top talent is not the only concern. Organizations employing effective training and development strategies focus on the development of talents that are already in existence, especially in the event of hard economic times.
This claim is consistent with the global approaches to effective training and development, which focus on making organizations people-centric (McDonnell, Lamare, Gunnigle & Lavelle, 2010, p.153). This means that people feel they are part of organizational growth when they are given an opportunity to grow their skills and knowledge potentials through training and development.
Developing effective talent management strategies aligned well with the goals and objectives of training and development approaches, which are effective at both organizational and global levels, demands the creation of internal talent development programs that are in line with the interests of employees.
By creating job positions that are filled internally on the global platforms, organizations have the capacity to retain the top talent, which is critical in enhancing competitive advantage (McCauley & Wakefield, 2006, p.39).
The value of employees being given an opportunity to identify their own specific competency development area, which is then merged with their career paths, also requires prioritization in the development of effective training and development programs at both organizational and global levels.
The Place of Training and Development in Recruitment and Selection Processes
Human resource training entails the process of imparting crucial knowledge together with skills on people. Training is particularly important for organizations seeking to align people with their goals in the future together with the emerging organizational industry trends.
According to Lombardo and Eichinger, “well-equipped HR professionals are the means to ensuring optimal performance from organizations’ employees” (2008, p.148).
However, organizations endeavor to hire people who are not only talented, but also people who can easily learn and grow their talents through training and development. This concern highlights the significance of considering issues of effective training and development at the selection and recruitment processes.
The HR has the mandate to select employees for an organization. Such people become one of the most important resources for an organization. Hence, training and development programs focus on fitting the right people using the right techniques for recruitment at the right positions within an organization (Sveiby, 2009, p.508).
Effective techniques for recruitment do not just embrace placement of adverts over the media or simply facing people in an interviewing panel. Rather, every interview or mode of recruitment needs to be effective. For this to occur, the junior HR staff should also have a well-guided mechanism of selecting the most talented people to fit in the training and development programs.
In this context, Lombardo and Eichinger argue, “human Resource training and development should be focused on training the HR professional to understand the requirements from the organizational perspective” (p.148).
Training and development programs need to borrow from the inputs of the human resource managers on the desired future talents and knowledge requirements for employees. This begins with the selection of people who are capable of meeting organizational objectives and goals both presently and in the future.
Training, Development, and Mentoring
Training and development program features employee-mentoring strategies. Advising employees has a great contribution and influence towards creating a link between organizational strategies and the desired outcomes. Indeed, mentoring enables employees to stand better chances in learning and understanding their roles in achieving organizational strategies.
According to the Society for Human Resource Management (2008), above 50% of human resource professionals have either taken part in their tenure in mentoring others or received mentoring and/or both (p.8).
In addition to enhancing understanding of strategies and objectives of an organization, mentoring provides opportunities of interaction and relationships among professionals, hence creating a platform for the establishment of harmony at the workplace.
Mentoring requires willingness, commitment, and guidance, especially where the objective of training and development encompasses efforts of enhancing growth, performance, and efficiently nurturing employees.
Mentoring strategies incorporated in the training and development programs promote mutual development between the management and professionals, thereby managing hitches that arise because of the abrupt changes within organization (Sveiby, 2009). Organizations, which do not embrace mentoring in training and development, have the risk of lack of coordination.
They neglect management of talents besides encountering incidences of limited realization of goals and objectives. Mentoring shapes and molds employees. It facilitates them to identify their strengths and weaknesses so that they gain confidence to attain their departmental objectives together with organizational goals.
The process of mentoring is significant to newly recruited employees. It changes their mentality and negativity mindset when tackling issues concerned with their positions in their respective departments (Sveiby, 2009).
Human resource mentoring in an organization ensure diligence, especially when the coach is experienced and willing to offer the intended information and practice affecting employees’ spirit of working to their full potential. Gradually, staff members broaden their capability in contribution to the organizational plans.
They develop the discipline to implement business strategies. At the expense of training and development of human resources, the realization of the organizational culture becomes a reality.
Organizational culture determines the future position of an organization in terms of productivity and competitive advantage. In this context, incorporation of mentoring programs in the training and development forms a major milestone in the development of effective training and development at both organizational and global levels.
Determinants of Effectiveness of Training and Development Programs
Considering the arguments developed in the above sections, training and development programs are pivotal in enhancing the success of organizations both in the short and in the long term. Based on this claim, organizations seeking to achieve success at both national and global levels commit a large magnitude of financial resources in training and development programs.
However, according to Lombardo and Eichinger, it is “reasonable to establish just how effective this training has been if only to help justify the budget” (2008, p.154). Thus, it is important for organizations to put in place mechanisms of evaluation and measuring the success rates of their training and development programs in the effort to determine their effectiveness.
The evaluation techniques for training and development programs within organizations have been in existence since 1940. The goal of evaluation of training and development programs is to determine the effectiveness of the programs in the achievement of both present and future growth anticipations of an organization.
Taylor put forward one of the earliest models for evaluation of the effectiveness of training and development strategies adopted by organizations. The model incredibly emphasised the significance of establishing the standards of education for employees before a new education strategy was developed to train the employees within an organization (Lombardo & Eichinger, 2008).
The model measured the differences between the previous levels of knowledge possessed by employees to the new levels of knowledge and skills upon administration of new educational interventions were successfully completed. This implies that Taylor aimed at measuring, in a scientific way, the effectiveness of training and development programs in improving performance levels of employees.
Although Taylor’s model has encountered a number of criticisms, Shane and Lafferty argue, “it has proved to be valuable in that organizations have been able to quantify the relationship between their corporate objectives (often expressed as key performance indicators (KPIs) today) and the training aims and objectives” (2004, p.317).
One of the criticisms of evaluation of the effectiveness of training and development programs from a scientific approach is that the methodologies do not incorporate perspectives of managing unintentional learning or unexpected learning.
Two important models for effectiveness of training and development programs are Kirkpatrick and P. Warr et al.’s model referred as CIRO model. The CIRO introspects “context evaluation, input evaluation, reaction evaluation, and outcome evaluation” (Shane & Lafferty, 2004, p.319). Kirkpatrick’s model deploys four main stages to measure the effectiveness of training and development programs.
The first stage is reaction. Reaction considers the perceptions and feelings of people about any training and development program. Organizations that emphasize effectiveness of training and development program administrate feedback sheets.
Such sheets determine how happy people were with the training and development education session. They are good examples of reaction levels for Kirkpatrick’s model for evaluation of effectiveness of training and development programs.
In level two, Kirkpatrick’s model considers the pre-test and post-test elements to evaluate learning outcomes. Through these tests, organizations develop the capacity to evaluate the capacity of the training program to deliver the desired knowledge and skills within the stipulated period.
Level 3 dwells on behaviour, which refers to the “measurable change in individuals based on their attendance in the training course” (Shane & Lafferty, 2004,p.321). Change within an organization entails alteration of behaviours towards the approaches of some specific issues that may influence the performance of organizations at local, national, and global levels.
In the effort to realise these changes, it is important for training and development programs to achieve the desired behaviour. Indeed, it is illogical to invest organizational financial and time resources in training if the training and development programs do not produce the desired behavioural changes.
In level four, Kirkpatrick claims that training programs need to translate the anticipated outcomes into tangible benefits for organizational success. Some of the desired tangible outcomes include productivity improvement, plants and machinery availability, quality improvements, reduction of the number of work-related accidents, and workforce morale improvements (Sveiby, 2009).
These elements of evaluation of the effectiveness of training and development programs feature effective evaluation strategies for the effectiveness of training and development programs at both organizational and global levels. The underlining concept of adoption of effective training and development programs is to enhance the cost-effectiveness for organizations.
Effective training and development programs at both organizational and global levels require mapping of competences with performance of work. New competences are required by organizations during times of technological changes or increasing industrial competition often leading to the alteration of operational process together with work systems (Sveiby, 2009).
Based on this assertion, some organizations such as IBM have developed training and development models, which have proved largely effective in enhancing organizational success. The IPO model for IBM was developed to facilitate the organization to resolve the challenges of ensuring that training and development programs developed by the company deliver results at global levels.
The model distinguishes between outputs or the short-term benefits of training and development programs and the outcomes or the long-term benefits of training and development programs. Essentially, IPO model is an input-output model for evaluation of the effectiveness of organizational training and development strategies. This model is illustrated in fig. 1 below.
Fig1: Input- Output Model for Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Training and Development
Source (Shane & Lafferty, 2004, p.331).
Hindrances to Effective Training and Development in Human Resource
The discussion of the effectiveness of training and development of human resource is perhaps incomplete without consideration of the obstructions of training and development.
Organizations seeking to develop their employees to enable them meet the emerging needs such as innovation and creativity to enhance competitive advantage have to establish training and development programs that are free from such impediments in the realization of the goals and objectives of the programs.
Learning and development programs do not attain their intended results at 100 percent efficiency levels. However, training and development managers need to consider various alternatives that increase the efficiency of training and development.
In this context, Sveiby (2009) argues that training and development programs adopted by different organizations over the last 30 years deliver an average of 30 percent efficiency levels. Although no data exists in organizations, which have measured the efficiency levels of their training and development strategies objectively, the interrogative of how efficiency levels of the programs can be raised remains important.
Efficiency of training and development can be increased by altering the focus of training and development programs from learning to performance. This implies that training and development in human resource needs to pay more emphasis on outputs compared to inputs.
In this line of thought, Shane and Lafferty suggest that improving training and development require organizations to shift from focusing on “training needs analysis process and replacing it with some form of business-focused performance analysis” (2004, p.323).
This process requires setting of clear expectations, use of sufficient tools coupled with resources and the procedure to support the process, and a timely reception and analysis of feedback.
Training mindset acts as a hindrance to the success of training and development in the sense that it shapes the perception on focus of training and development. As argued before, the focus of effectiveness in training and development approaches for human resource is performance as opposed to inputs.
Success of an organization in the future is dependent on the development of strategies that would make an organisation more productive, efficient, and effective (Levenson, 2011). Focusing on outputs calls for managers to think like entrepreneurs who are the owners of organizations as opposed thinking like the HR. This way, the manager becomes engaged to the outcomes of training and development.
Training and development are one of the noble roles played by the human resource within any organization depending on people to enhance their competitive advantage. Public and private sector rely on employees to execute their duties. In the due process, based on how tasks are executed, differences in talent endowment among employees become conspicuous.
These talents can then be developed to enhance better performance of organizations. In this context, the research paper argued that it is important for organizations to adopt effective training and development programs.
Such programs need to factor in the approaches of enhancing organizational talent management, career development, mentoring, and consideration of the roles of training and development in the execution of HR functions within an organization such as recruitment and selection process.
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