The History of Economic Analysis Essay

Jewish and Christian opinions on Usury

Researchers believe that the Christian and Jewish theorist have varied opinions when it comes to the issue of lending money. They have notable differences concerning the study of medieval European view which was meant to prevent taking interests on loans.

The insights and governing interpretations of the medieval Rabbis on interest rates are that Talmud and Scripture prohibits it with respect to the law of natural justice. In theory, the natural justice principles guarantee no opposition to the contract entered into by both parties (Kirshenbaum 282).

It is very fair to charge a normal rate of interest on loan despite the irrational lending terms put on the borrower by the creditor. In case the borrower leaves the nation without repaying the cash owed, the creditor will bear the loss.

Moreover, circumstances of monetary failure of the debtor are putting the creditor in trouble of losing the full loan. Therefore, the creditor cannot benefit from using his money during the loan period. Compensation is necessary to the creditors for the shortages and risks they undergo during the time of lending (Temin and Voth 551).

The example of a clouded legislation is the Jewish prohibition of lending money free of charge or at set charges. The scholars openly state that the scriptures instructed the Israelites to carry out their activities in a manner that manifests care and sympathy. In contrast, most financial philosophers uphold their overriding position that charging interest on the cash lent is not against the decree of natural justice. Ruling out the interest charged as indicated in the bible corresponds to morality.

Thus, using this can help in explaining Usury (Benmelech and Moskowitz 1041). Theorists used the emerging concerns on Usury from the medieval interpreters. In fact, they could also refer to early sources that explain the charged interests on loans. The patristic inscriptions and the church councils clearly state that the Christian tradition denounced Usury during money lending.

This was long back in the year 1000. Usury was rather prehistoric until that time, and its definition was just unclear (Farooq 267). In fact, not even a lone effort tried to define what comprised the loan, though Usury emerged probably because of loans. The reimbursement of Usury prescription was not a contract neither was it an offense against justice. At the same time, encouraging Usury was an offense and condemning it was an apparent look of discrepancy.

The medieval financial researchers educated that lending with interest on top entailed infringing the natural justice. In the 11th century, Ivo from Chartres, and Anselm from Canterbury were the first individuals to link Usury to theft. An affirmation by Auxerre William that Usury was contrary to the natural law came just a century later (Labat and Block 383).

When arguing about lending money, contradicting opinions emerged between the Jews and the Christians. Some supported lending money without payment while others were on the contrary. Therefore, Aquinas Thomas formulated and presented some controls regarding the charged interests on loaned funds. Aquinas saw that it was unfair for the creditor to gain interest or profit from the money lent out.

It was clear that loan entailed the shift of monetary rights from the creditor to the debtor. Further, it is an injustice to receive extra money from a lesser amount (Farooq 56). Aquinas said that money had no regular or permanent value. It was the determinant of value for everything. Thus, money cannot be one of the terms of sale, but a scheme connecting the two terms incorporated in the transaction that is, lending, and repayment.

The scholar noted that money has a trade value. It does not add to Usury. This implies that lending money at high interests is a natural way of reproducing money. The argument was founded majorly on the Roman decree. The guidelines stipulated that money does not bear fruits that one would look forward to obtain. Its value relies on the usage. In the contrary, Meeks (2011) learnt that borrowing money for trade fair purposes were subjected to payments (p.130).

Hence, making a distinction in the monetary worth depends on its continuation value because the value differs from its main character. The other argument by the popular non-Thomastic was that there existed a complete return on the original money lent. It was against Usury since it represented morals that were contrary to the nature of sales during that time (Persky 231).

In the nineteenth century, a rational economic concern caused divergence between the Western honorable and Catholicism. This fostered the submissions of the secular and Protestants that were considered unimportant following the supervision charge of the Holly Office of the Roman congregation. The catholic ethics and canon guaranteed that everybody including the faithful could observe interests as material permitted in the law (Valeri 152).

There is no substantive characteristic between the profitable and individual charitable loans in the Jewish law. Scholars are still maintaining the early law of interest conserved in the Leviticus and Exodus (Smith 255). These laws restricted the prevention of loan giving to the poor though traditions abandoned this method of getting rich.

The Jewish prose legally proliferates with the matching thoughts and perceptions. The law specifies that when the transfer of the monetary possession between the debtor and the creditor is effectuated, the associated risks must be with the debtor. Money is an appraisal of value and should not be the subject of sale. Thus, its value changes depending on the purchasing power (Taeusch 302).

There are differences between the Jewish and the Christians theoretical understanding of the biblical law on Usury. The prohibition of interest in the Jewish view was an example of confused legislation. To Christians, Usury was purportedly grounded on the natural sedek (Wann and Christi 171).

These helped the Christians in understanding business and commerce. Today, it is easy to differentiate between profit-making finance and individual finance. The difference is without any doubt contained in the Catholic thinking. This has enabled Christians to remain timid that they should not prohibit what their teacher Moses allowed.

History and the recent report on Usury in China

The Chinese governments recognized Usury as a sin several years back. China therefore amended the bylaw to make sure that lenders acquire license. Moreover, it guaranteed that lenders should not be charging more than 60.0% on interest rates per year.

In the recent years, the entire sum of small loans was approximately 5.60% of the whole money loaned in the market (Wann and Christi 170). Although there are big risks, the interest rate on loan is quite steady and acceptable. This has fostered rapid growth of business where development of the banking industry is slower.

In China, there were no laws on Usury. It meant bearing costs for handling money or charging interest on loans. Today Usury may imply to lend out money at a rate of interest that is unlawful and excessively high. Therefore, it is a national offence to use warning or brutality while collecting interest rates on Usury. This act amounts to loan shirking, which is also applicable to the non-coercive lending to the customers (Persky 221).

During the Han China and the Roman Empire, many people hardly worried about the concept of Usury. However, they tried to control the charged interest rates. When the Roman Empire collapsed, trade activities reduced, and Usury was disliked in the entire Europe ad West Asia (Persky 223).

In the recent past, it was a surprise that China illegalized private lending. Not even the middle or diminutive business enterprises were qualified to overpass the financial support from the Chinese banks. However, in excess of 3.570 trillion Yuan illegal funds were financing the undersized and intermediate businesses in China. More than half of this financing took place in the hometown of Chinese.

A ban on the private lending by the government is arbitrary and gradual. Many creditors are still charging as high as 70.06% on interest rates. The instigators collect funds from associates and relatives in view of the fact that loans are naturally unofficial.

In fact, the hold back in the economy of China is forcing many debtors to flee to Wenzhou because they cannot reimburse the monthly interests. An incredibly sky-scraping profile on suicide is recorded because of Usury. Creditors have lost millions of dollars (Stuartbramhall 1). Most credit approaches are through fixed-up commercial structures and homes that have uncertain selling rights.

In some circumstances, the government of China could impose the death sentence on Usury practices. For instance, for charging irrational rates of interest, a renowned millionaire in China faced the death penalty in the financial year 2009 (Stuartbramhall 1). The death sentence and credit crisis in the fiscal 2011 irritated the undersized and lawful business society.

Thus, they forced the government to restructure and legalize private lending. This is helping the government to create confidential equity financing, macro-financing firms, and countryside banks. China Supreme Court has ordered for the retrial of the millionaire’s fatal penalty (Stuartbramhall 1).

Works Cited

Benmelech, Efraim and Moskowitz Tobias. “The Political Economy of Financial Regulation: Evidence from U.S. State Usury Laws in the 19th Century.” Journal of Finance, 65.3 (2012): 1029-1073. Print.

Farooq, Muhammad. “Interest, Usury, and its Impact on the Economy.” Dialogue (Pakistan), 7.3 (2012): 54-65. Print.

Farooq, Muhammad. “Interest, Usury, and its Impact on the Economy.” Dialogue (1819-6462), 7.3 (2012): 265-276. Print.

Kirshenbaum, Aaron. “Jewish and Christian Theories of Usury in the Middle Ages.” The Jewish Quarterly Review, 75.3 (1985): 270-289. Print.

Labat, Alyssa, and Block Walter. “Money Does Not Grow on Trees: An Argument for Usury.” Journal of Business Ethics, 106.3 (2012): 383-387. Print.

Meeks, Douglas. “The Peril of Usury in the Christian Tradition.” Interpretation: A Journal of Bible & Theology, 65.2 (2011): 128-140. Print.

Persky, Joseph. “Retrospectives: From Usury to Interest.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21.1 (2007): 227-36. Print.

Smith, Helmut. “The Discourse of Usury: Relations between Christians and Jews in the German Countryside, 1880-1914.” Central European History (Brill Academic Publishers), 32.3 (1999): 255. Print.

Stuartbramhall 2012. The Most Revolutionary Act: The Loan Sharks behind China’s Economic Boom. Retrieved from web.

Taeusch, Carl. “The Concept of ‘Usury’ the History of an Idea.” Journal of the History of Ideas, 3.3(1942): 291-318. Print.

Temin, Peter, and Voth Hans-Joachim. “Private borrowing during the financial revolution: Hoare’s Bank and its customers, 1702–24.” Economic History Review, 61.3 (2008): 541-564. Print.

Valeri, Mark. “The Christianization of Usury in Early Modern Europe.” Interpretation: A Journal of Bible & Theology, 65.2 (2011): 142-152. Print.

Wann, Garry and Christi Wann. “The History of Payday Lending In Arkansas.” Journal of the Academy of Business & Economics, 12.1 (2012): 167-177. Print.