Graphic design has significantly proved an important and integral component in relation to internet communication. Despite the different definitions of graphic design, the discipline has proved the fundamental worth in online communication in a world that has increasingly embraced the internet, merging the virtual and the real world into virtual reality.
That is evident on the importance attached to graphic design with typical, examples constituting facilitation of online marketing, with case examples including online the use of web-based applications in online teaching of students. While that remains true, impressions made based on graphic design concepts include the use of fonts to communicate messages and elicit action or stimulate response or some kind of behavior in the mind of the user.
The discipline has proved a valuable in enabling and facilitating online communication, calling for more people to train in the profession. One of the concepts that support graphic design is natural language processing, however, there is need to conduct research into the discipline, and how affects graphic design. Research shows a grim reality on future trends in graphic design due declining employment. Despite that, it is a worth profession to invest in as graphic design is indispensable in online communication.
Graphic design is one of the fundamental tools underpinning online communication in its different forms of communication today (Meggs, 1983). That is partly due to the rise in the use of the internet as a communication platform throughout the world. Typically, communicating using the internet has become an integral part of the lives of people throughout the world and the forms of communication elicited on the internet varies based on different forms (Zhao, 1996; Warschauer, 1996a; Meggs, 1983).
One of the forms of internet communication interwoven into internet communication is the use of graphics to express ideas and provide other forms of communications (Warschauer, 1996b). Thus, internet communication and graphic design seamlessly merge to attain the ultimate objective of communicating information and meaning from one point to another.
Typically, communication between different parties on the internet has experienced an impact that has transformed the virtual world into reality, amalgamating the virtual world with the real world (Warschauer, 1999; Warschauer, 1998). That has transformed the virtual world into the real world. Ironically, graphic design has transformed the virtual world into the real world establishing a thin line between both worlds.
It is worth concluding to note that graphic design is a principal transformative force, transforming reality into the digital virtual world and the digital world into the real world. Thus, the distinction between the real world and the virtual world disappears, reinforcing the undisputable position of graphic design in internet communication where pictures and image displayed for the public are the means to convey certain messages (Pinto, 1996).
These graphical styles of communication stimulate actions with corresponding reactions, creating a specific mood that inclines people to act in a certain manner (Warschauer, 1999; Meggs, 1983).
It is therefore the approach used in internet communication, and that, which has become increasingly mandatory that graphic design has had a significant share in internet communication (Wenger, 1998). Therefore, the importance of graphic design is indisputable in relation to internet communication, as it has become an essential component in online communication.
However, to establish the strength of the argument in relation to the importance of online communication, it is crucial to discuss on the definition of graphic design, the functions of graphic design, the functions of graphic designers, and the importance of graphic design in relation to online communication.
In addition to that, the paper discusses the rise in demand for graphic designers, the connection between efficiency in online communication, the impact of good graphic design in online communication, natural language processing, the impact of printed language, and the effect that online fonts have on people.
To establish the Importance of Graphic Design Related to Internet Communication
- Establish the underlying definition of graphic design as a discipline
- To establish existing online graphic design types and their functions
- To find the basic functions of graphic design in online communications
- To list the pros and cons of using graphic design in online communications;
- To outline the prospects of online graphic design further development.
- What is graphic design?
- What is the importance of graphic design in online communication?
- What are the types of fonts used in graphic design for online communication?
- What are the requirements necessary to train as a graphic designer?
- How does natural language processing merge into graphic design?
- What is the trend and future prospect in the graphic design industry?
- What are the pros and cons of graphic design as a discipline?
The importance of graphic design is hardly worth underestimation as it underpins the rapid development of online communication and the efficiency and effectiveness of engaging in online communication for internet users (Meggs, 1983).
According to Meggs (1983), graphic design does not have a single straightforward definition, but many underlying definitions proposed by different authors provide the baseline working definition of graphic design. Typically, graphic design evolved from the term “graphic” which is directly related to marks- and markings on a surface while the term ”design” with a direct meaning to “plan” or to “draw”.
Other authors have taken the research further by asserting that graphic design is not just merely to make marks on a surface, but strongly relates to the making of marks with specific meaning. Typically, it involves making marks through a planning and designing process. Typically, therefore, thinking us a key element in the planning and design process, to produce writing and marks with associated meanings (Baker, 1990).
These definitions provide a range of activities associated with graphic design, typically drawing from a range of disciplines including communication arts, and illustrations with visual communications that is value laden in a cultural context.
Defining graphic design as “a means of communication consisting in the use of words and images on more or less everything, more or less everywhere” (Kalman, 1995), the definition broadens graphic design away from high or low culture and includes the works of art. Typically, it includes making of single images, paintings, and other products with the potential of being reproduced (Warschauer, 1995).
Though others contend by limiting the definition of graphic design to expression of ideas using images, it is worth adopting the wider definition that incorporates the “visual communication” in which graphic design is viewed as “the business of making or choosing marks and arranging them on a surface to convey an idea” (Hollis, 1994).
Other proponents of the definition of graphic design draw on the cultural orientations in which the argument of it being visual culture. However, the argument might go on and the exact definition of graphic design remains elusive. However, the current working definition of graphic design in the context of online communication is visual culture, for mass production that provides accessibility to a wide audience, thus proving a qualifying definition of graphic design (Baker, 1990).
While the definition of graphic design in the context of online communication relates to visual communication of an idea embedded in visual culture, it is crucial to evaluate the importance of graphic design as it relates to online communication. Therefore, to establish the importance of online communication, it is crucial to establish the underlying functions of online communication (Dixon & Poynor, 2001).
Functions of Graphic design
Graphic design is a discipline that serves several functions to elicit online communication. While graphic design is fundamental in online communication, it is crucial to note that it serves several functions associated with online communication.
Typically, that is because online communication consists of a family of people who communicate and share ideas from a variety of backgrounds and social settings. In addition to that, the online community of internet users is always engaged in different activities including business communications and other activities on the internet. Therefore, graphic design serves social, cultural, and economic functions (Drucker & McVarish, 2009; Soh, & Soon, 1991; St. John & Cash, 1995).
In modern times, the core functions of graphic design have been economic, drawing a large community of people who conduct business online. However, these functions have narrowed down further with a professional outlook with the underlying functions defined in the context of the concepts underlying the functions of graphic design. One such definition is the role of “identification” as one of the functions of graphic design.
These imply that graphic design enables one to identify or establish “what is something is, or where it came from” (Hollis, 1994). Typical examples that fall under this category include company logos, inn signs, and packaging of products, among other functions. In addition to that, the other core function of graphic design is to convey and communicate information and other forms of instructions, thus showing and establishing the relationships between different items in relation to each other.
Typical examples that illustrate the concept of the relationship between different items and their behavior have their exemplification in maps and other direction eliciting signs.
Typically, that enables one to develop a metal picture of different items hosted on the internet and as a form of online communication to a specific audience. Other implications include the messages communicated with the sole objective of making an idea memorable in the mind of the beholder of a specific image (Heller, 1998; Tella, 1992; Tella, 1992a; Tella, 1992b).
In all the online communication done on the internet based on the principles of graphic design, it is crucial to note that images that merge reality with the virtual world are core elements in the communication process (Heller, 1998; Vilmi, 1995; Wang, 1993). Typically, these images are symbolic representations of reality and serve the aesthetical representation of an actual object.
Thus, the images are abstract representation of facts hosted in the internet and aesthetically reinforced using different background colors. Examples include advertising services on the internet to inform the online community about a specific product.
It is crucial to consider the fact other functions that make graphic design as one of the fundamental tools that facilitates online communication based on additional functions. One of the functions that emprises the importance of graphic design in the need to present graphic s as a form of communication that is persuasion (Shetzer & Warschauer, 2000; Gregory, 2003).
Persuasion is based on the underlying concept of the need to communicate ideas and information to convince a particular audience on the value of a certain or specific idea for the person to buy into that idea. Typically, the approach used to elicit the conviction in the mind if the intended audience is the use of images.
Images play a significant role in developing a mental picture in the mind of the target audience thus, making one retain a specific type of information or idea that psychologically plays a significant role in decision-making. It is crucial to argue that graphical representations have the ability to inculcate and stimulate rhetorical function on a target audience (Wang, 1993).
One of the crucial examples is the logo mentioned above. The effect created by the use of the logo in online communication leaves a lasting impression and picture in the mind of the target audience and anyone that comes across an idea expressed graphically. One of the convictions derived from the use of the above logo is the persuasion conveyed about the caring and efficient nature of the company represents graphically using the above-mentioned logo (Gregory, 2003; Sparke, 2004).
It is however, important to note that the rhetoric function provided using the logo mentioned above takes different forms. Thus, persuasion is crucial in online commutation as it one of the indispensable components and rationale of communicating ideas on information to the online audience.
That emphasizes the rationale and importance of graphic design as an online communication tool. Typical examples include different forms of illustrations electronically expressed including documentaries and other forms of graphic online communications (Sparke, 2004).
While persuasion forms one of the fundamental components of online communication, it is crucial to note that decorations that underlie aesthetical presentations constitute one of the functions of graphic design in relation to online communication. Typically, decoration is an aesthetic function regarded as a source of enjoyment and entertaining on the internet as used in online communication.
Some authors contend the use of decorations as an aesthetic function, arguing that it is simply fun, but others reinforce the idea of aesthetic function as one of the fundamental principles of graphic design and an important function that stimulates some response and attitude in an individual to elicit action.
Typically, the decorations function is always made evident in the images that merge reality with the virtual world of products and other items that can be represented in the form of images for the aim of communicating a certain or particular idea to an a target audience (Foster, 2008; Sparke, 2004).
However, when the decoration function, the persuasion function, and other fundamental elements functions merged into a product or an idea communicated in the form of an online image, the result is a stimulus response from the target audience in the form of a magical action. Thus, visualization of the magical effect an additional function makes a link between the real and unreal world (Sherry, 2002).
It is important to note that some other writers radially view the function of graphic design in relation to the metalinguistic and phatic functions. Metalinguistic and phatic functions draw on emotive and conative functions, which typically, correspond, to the persuasion function.
At this point, it is worth noting that the metalinguistic and phatic functions correspond and agree with the functions mentioned above and one is compelled to conclude that these functions are collaborative or go hand in hand. That is because, when one is making a viewing an object, there is no possibility of separating the functions.
One therefore can argue that metalinguistic and phatic functions always play a significant role when designing graphics for use in online communication. Thus, when considered from the metalinguistic aspects, images or graphics provide a means of communicating information and ideas in other forms that the intended audience is able to comprehend (Master of Graphic Design, 2009).
Thus, metalinguistic and phatic functions is indispensable in online communication as one of the underlying functions of graphic design which has a strong connection to the codes and use of symbols to communicate.
Graphic design provides a means typically defined by templates as thematic blogs for online users to communicate by filling information. However, there is need to conduct more research in this field and link it to graphic design and its implications in online communication.
Importance of Graphic Design & Designers
Graphic design is not only important in online communication but a crucial tool that graphic designers embrace when making graphic designs that provide efficient and effective communication on the internet.
Typically, graphic design enables one attains the goals identified in any project specifically when communicating and idea or enabling communication between different parties on the internet. Graphic design enables communication to thrive not only between different parties engaged in online communication, but also the conveyance of an idea or a fact in graphic al form (Master of Graphic Design, 2009; Sherry, 2002; Schön, 1983; Poyner, 1998).
Graphic designers provide various services at different levels of online communication. Typically, their importance stems from the application of their skills in enabling online communication become efficient and effective, thus making online services attain communication goals associated with their business goals (Master of Graphic Design, 2009).
Typically, that is because some of the defining characteristics of graphic designers are their knowledge of social context within which the skills are applied, the knowledge bases their knowledge thrives, their knowledge of consumer culture, and the relationship between their knowledge of consumer culture and their design practices.
Typically, that is more specifically base on their knowledge of consumer behavior and the overall need to formulate an idea into an image that communicates a certain idea targeting a specific customer to perform a particular task (Carlson, 2005).
One of the essential areas that graphic design plays a significant role is in online marketing. Typically, that is because marketing is the cornerstone of the success of any business. One of the fundamental considerations when going online for companies conducting their business is the ability to grow the current size, thus increase profits and survival of a business. Thus, that makes online communication all too important.
Graphic design plays a significant role in enabling commutation of information and ideas to the target audience while ensuring that an organization retains a highly polished since businesses operate on a highly competitive environment.
Typically, graphic design plays a significant role in online promotional displays, in the creation of distinctive logs associated with a particular company, presentation of products and services that can be accessed online. In addition, it is based on the historical importance associated with graphic design in marketing and business success. It therefore is one of the underlying drivers of business success in online the online market (Heller, 1998).
On the other hand, some authors argue that graphic design presents the professional side of any business since graphics have the inbuilt characteristic of sticking into the mind of the customer, thus making a lasting impression on the mind of a person. On the other hand, the consistence of images presented online provides value to the need and importance of graphic design, derived directly from the functions associated with graphic design (Heller, 1998).
Different arguments show that graphic design provides functionalities that allow for effective communication of information or ideas between source and destination when communication occurs between two parties. However, it is crucial to consider the importance of graphic design from the perspective of the services offered based on the discipline.
Typically, the graphic design industry is concerned with the planning of images and other graphic representations, designing the graphics, and presenting and production of images to effect visual communication. That is based on one of the definitions of graphic design a way of producing visual commutation on the online platform, defined under graphic design services (Heller, 1998; Ady, 1995; American Management Association International, 1998; Drucker & McVarish, 2009).
Graphic Design Services
Thus, graphic design services include presenting images to communicate a specific idea, message, or concept, while ensuring clarity in communicating complex information with clarity with visual identities.
Among the services includes promotional work in a marketing environment, for rise in corporate identify programs, provide the basis for designing strategies in management of business functions, and provide services in the video design and displays.
In addition to that, graphic design provides services in providing the functionalities necessary for people communicating online to use the technology platforms interactively to communicate information or particular ideas, and in the film and related industries (Heller, 1998; Scrivener, 2000).
However, it is crucial to distinguish between the services offered in the graphic design industry and other industries to provide a clear and justified view of the services offered on the industry based on its characteristics. Therefore, the industries to exclude that do not fall under graphic design include industries primarily engaged in marketing consultancy businesses, cartoon development, publishing and printing, and fine arts.
Typically, therefore the key elements that distinguish graphic designers from other forms of communication include the core functions of graphic designers, which includes as mentioned elsewhere. Thus, “graphic designers plan, analyze, create, and execute visual solutions to communication problems, with specific attention to the needs of clients, audiences and the context in which they are used” (Heller, 1998).
Researched has shown that graphic designer use a variety of technologies and mediums to carry out their activities. These include the use of different types of technologies and mediums in the design, analysis, development, and implementation processes (Heller, 1998).
Thus, the key functions of graphic designers fall into brand identify programs, advertising and promotional design, brochure design, posters, direct mail design, and catalog design.
Typically, these areas are crucial in online communication hand provide the fundamental means of communicating ideas and other information to intended audiences. However, the current research focuses on online communication. Thus, the definition of graphic designers draws on the functionality to provide online communication (Heller, 1998; Meggs, 1983).
However, for one to be fully engaged in graphic design, thus fitting one into the provision of services in online communication, it is crucial for one to be trained one the fundamentals of online communication.
Typically, anyone taking the profession needs to be trained on the application of the concepts of graphic design, examine with detail the job outlook in the graphic design, and the level of income associated with graphic design as a profession (Lupton, 2009; Barnard, 2005; Barson & Debski, 1996; Barson, Frommer & Schwartz, 1993).
Online Graphic Design Types
To create a comprehensive understanding of the different forms of graphic designs and their significance in the graphic design industry, the following provides a summary of the different forms and associated standards in the US (Drucker & McVarish, 2009).
|U.S. Standard||Graphic Design Type||Product Definition|
|Type||Advertising and Promotional Design|
|US 3.1.1||Advertising and Promotion Design||Creating material (in print or in digital format) for use by a client, including newspaper and print and display advertising; magazine ads; and classified ads (including telephone book ads).|
|US 3.1.2||Brand Identity Program||Developing a communication strategy to best communicate and promote the identity of a particular company or product. A program involves creation of a program involves creation of a visual system embodied in a set of standards for maintaining consistency across a large array of applications.|
|US 3.1.3||Brochure Design||Creating the layout for a client brochure, including size, art direction of|
|US 3.1.4||Catalog Design||Creating the layout for a client (business) catalog, including copywriting,|
|US 3.1.5||Direct Mail Design||Creating the material (in print or in digital format) to be used in a client’s direct mail advertising, including brochures, fliers, inserts, letters, etc.|
|From Gregory, 2003).|
|US 3.1.6||Posters||Creating the layout, and content for a client poster; to produce a poster for a|
|Type||Corporate Identity Design|
|US 3.2.1||Corporate||Graphic design of organization=s communication products including, annual reports, product promotions, employee benefits and communications, business- Communications.|
|US 3.2.2||Logo Design||Creating a graphic image (logo/mark/logotype) for use by the customer in advertising and promoting his business. A Logo/mark/[email protected] is the name|
|US 3.2.3||Stationery System||Designing a client’s stationery system C letterhead, business cards, forms, envelopes, labels, electronic templates and other items C including color,|
|Type||Design Strategy and Management|
|US 3.3.1||Art direction||Determining what photos or illustrations to make, what should be in them, how|
|US 3.3.2||Design management||Coordinating groups of designers and managing large projects.|
|US 3.3.3||Design Strategy (Strategic Design)||The design of approaches, processes, cycles, idea generation, and management.|
|From Gregory, 2003|
|US 3.4.1||Book Design||Graphic design of books, book covers, and interior components.|
|US 3.4.2||Magazine Design||Graphic design of magazine covers and interior components.|
|US 3.4.3||Newspaper Design||Graphic design of newspaper type, titles and other components.|
|Type||Exhibit and Signage Design|
|US 3.5.1||Exhibit Design||Design of temporary or permanent exhibits and displays that promote a Company’s or organizations products or educate and explain products, services, or concepts.|
|US 3.5.2||Signage Design||Creating designs to help people locate destinations and to create a distinct identity within retail establishments; or creating a system for navigating through a structure and insuring that the elements within the system are clear and consistent.|
|US 3.6.1||Creating the graphic design of online tools, software applications Graphical interface design.|
|US 3.6.2||Interaction design||Organizing the sequence of steps users will take in an application, game, or site.|
|From Gregory, 2003|
|US 3.6.3||Multimedia Design||A form of communication combining text with graphic design, page layout, video, audio, animation, and so forth, involving design, interaction and Creating the wireframe, the model, and artwork of three-dimensional digital images.|
|US 3.6.4||3D Digital Design||Creating the wireframe, the model and artwork of three dimensional digital|
|US 3.6.5||Web Site Design||Creating the content, appearance, and layout of a clients internet, intranet or extranet website, to include static HTML design as well as the design/programming of templates which control the display characteristics of Information such as text, graphics, and images stored in databases.|
|Type||Motion graphics design|
|US 3.7.1||Web animation||Any electronic graphic file format, which consists of two or more images shown in a timed sequence to give the effect of motion (e.g., Director movies, QuickTime movies, Shockwave movies, Flash movies, or other technologies).|
|From Gregory, 2003|
|US 3.7.2||Animation||Creating the individual animation image (cells) which are used to create a|
|US 3.7.3||Film Title Design||Design of film titles for motion picture and television films.|
|US 3.7.4||TV Graphics||The design of motion graphics to be used in television shows and programs|
|US 3.8.1||Package Design||Design of package that protects, stores, and displays products for sale to or use|
|US 3.9.2||Cartoons||Creating an exaggerated sketched image of the human faces and body or a Creating the artwork and other content to produce a cartoon for a client.|
|US 3.9.3||Clip Art Design||Copyright-free drawings available for purchase for unlimited reproduction. Art illustrations are printed on glossy paper or art illustrations are printed on glossy paper, are ready for placement on mechanicals or pages designed on computer screens or stored on computer disks. They are also called standard artwork.|
|US 3.9.4||Digital Illustration||Creation of highly manipulated images on the computer.|
|US 3.9.5||Digital Imaging||Creation of highly manipulated images on the computer.|
|US 3.9.6||Illustrations||Creating non-digital graphic illustrations for use by the clients.|
|US 3.9.7||Technical illustration||Creating drawings to explain how things work or are built. Strategic design.|
|US 3.10.1||Information architecture||Organizing content for large web sites or multimedia products.|
|US 3.10.2||Information design||Designing diagrams, charts, and maps; the creation of maps, diagrams,|
|US 3.10.3||Instructional design||Creating materials that explain or teach. Manuals are a key added value of the|
|US.3.11.1||Production Art||A process for creating artwork for production.|
|US 3.11.2||Type Design||Design of structural forms of the alphabet and its formal construction in a|
Specialized knowledge is required in graphic design to enable one plan, design, and share, analyze information, and communicates information in images and other forms of artifacts that might be required in making online images for communicating ideas and information targeting specific audiences. One of the fundamental concepts associated with online communication is the ability of the graphic designer to be able to develop skills and the abilities to solve online communication problems.
Typically, the graphic designer needs to respond to the needs of different audiences and context, create visual forms of communication that stimulates response and conjures up a picture in the mind of the target person, and the ability to understand, identify, and be able to use the tools required for graphic design that are available in the market.
However, it is important for one to consider the job outlook based on market intelligence reports and other sources of information. It has been established through a number of research findings that the job outlook in the market for graphic designers is strong.
Facts show that graphic designers with a rich experience earn in the United Sates up to $ 40,000, a significant amount in the market. On the other hand, creative directors in the same industry earn in the range of $ 80,000, thus making graphic design, from the perspective of job prospects one of the lucrative sources of income.
Having examined different types and classification of graphic design based on US standards, it is crucial to examine other aspects that include fonts used in online communication that the graphic designer has to be conversant with when developing the graphics necessary for online communication.
Types of Fonts in Online Communication
Fonts in online communication are indispensable component in the design of the graphics used on the internet. Typically, among the underlying characteristics defining the type of font to use is the quality associated with a specific font. Font quality provides the flexibility and uniqueness in developing online graphics for the purpose to communicate ideas or information for the target audience.
Thus, fonts create different impressions on the mind of the target individual and stimulate the type of response associated with the message communicated (FontSquirrel, 2001).
Typically, the fonts create different types of impressions in the minds of people when interacting with the computer in any graphical user interface. These fonts fall into different categories and classifications based on the underlying need to communicate an idea or information (Bourdieu, 1991; Grant, 1999; Harnad, 1991; Hunger & Wheelen, 1998; Jor, 1995; Julier, 2000).
However, it is crucial to note that Graphic designers have numerous collections of fonts used in graphic design to communicate specific ideas and information to the target audience. In principle, these fonts are categorized generally into OpenType fonts, Postscript fonts, and TrueType fonts. OpenType fonts are characterized by large character sets embedded into a single file, and regarded into separate files.
Typically, these types of fonts are defined as constituting “the current standard in fonts. In an OpenType font, both the screen and printer font is contained in a single file (similar to TrueType fonts)” (FontSquirrel, 2001; Cohen, 1985). The underlying developers of OpenType fonts are Microsoft and adobe developers. These types of fonts constitute one of the categories of fonts mentioned above (FontSquirrel, 2001).
Among the types of fonts, include the Foro font styles, the code style, Nobile style, PT sans style, Nobile style, St Marie style, and the calluna style. While it could require significant time to discuss each of the fonts independently, it is worth considering one of the fonts mentioned above and examine their intended impressions. In addition to that, one of the types of the fonts used in online communication in graphic design includes the sans serif (FontSquirrel, 2001).
Sans serif falls into the text font category designed to give the impression of modernity, roundness, and harmony (FontSquirrel, 2001). Typically, the font is designed to create a sense of harmony when used for creating headlines and any type of text.
In addition to that, the sans serif font supports a significant number of languages in the online community of speakers from different languages and incorporates different types of features that add value and quality to the font type. These include characteristics such as case sensitiveness, style alternatives, small caps, tabular figures, and contextual alternatives (FontSquirrel, 2001; Julier & Narotsky, 1998).
Another type of font used in online communication is the “black letter font”. The black letter font is designed with variations categorized into three. These include the west wind font, the Deustch Gothic font style, the plain black font, the kings Italique font, tectonic no one style, and several other variations that fall into the category of the black letter font.
While there are several types of fonts used in online communication, their impact and impressions on any audience vary significantly from one font to the other. However, in general, fonts are designed to create a specific type of impression in online communication to stimulate some type psychological action and response (FontSquirrel, 2001).
Despite the underlying benefits of using online graphics as one of the fundamental tools in online communication, there are pros and cons associated with the use of fonts in online communication (FontSquirrel, 2001; Friedman, 1990).
Natural Language Processing
It is typically valuable to study natural language processing in connection to online communication as one of the applications typical of graphic design. Typically, in online communication, there are instances where natural language processing is crucial in the creation of text aimed at conveying meaning to a specific audience. On the other hand, natural language processing provides the basis for translating text from one form into the other resulting into the intended meaning (Friedman, 1990).
Typically, that is because, as already mentioned at the beginning of this paper, online communication based on the internet closely merges into the lives of people on interconnected systems. Interconnected systems provide the basis of communicating between different people using different languages on the internet.
One of the underlying principles of natural language processing is the creation of user models used to create models that show how human beings behave when interacting with the internet based on graphic user interfaces. Therefore, it is crucial to note that user modeling draws on the combination of graphic design and natural language processing to model graphical designs that inculcate the needs of different users, their level of knowledge.
Thus, a number of features incorporated into graphical user interfaces developed with the underlying principles of graphic design must constitute knowledge, personal interests that are characterized by the competencies and skills used in graphic design, and previous experience acquired from the field of graphic design.
Thus, the importance of graphic design is emphasized in the use of natural language processing as one form of converting text and other forms of communication from one form to another on interconnected systems, typically, in this case, the internet. However, natural language processing, graphic design, and other forms of online communication can have potential impact on the way people communicate based on the impact of printed language.
Thus, printed language is one of the indispensable tools used in online communication with the potential to provide a means of conveying ideas with specified meaning to the intended audience. It is therefore crucial to examine the impact of printed language in online communication as it relates to graphic design and its importance in online communication.
Impact of Printed Language
One of the fundamental tools used in online communication is printed language. Printed language in its many forms provides the basis for communicating ideas and information with the appropriate message reaching the intended audience to elicit action. Typically, printed language is used as one of the online tools underlying the use of graphics to communicate messages between different parties engaged in a communication.
Thus, graphic design and printed language are complimentary in enabling communication between different parties. Typically, printed language has evolved over the years until it has attained its statues it has attained today. It provides the essential and underlying support for communicating messages from one point ton another and is an essential component in graphic design (Bourdieu, 1991; Chang, Schallert, 2005; Chun & Plass, 2000; Cohen, 1985; Daedalus Inc. 1989; Feldman, 1995).
Pros and Cons of Using Graphic Design in Online Communications
The pros and cons of using graphic design in online communications are in different forms. These include not only the weaknesses associated with the profession itself, and the dismal spirit due to the failure by graphic designers to attain their expectations. These are best expressed in the statement that says that more and more graphic designers get discouraged when they realize a big gap between the reality of their profession and their expectations.
Many people go into the graphic design discipline with big expectations intending to make large sums of money, which they never make, thus acting as a source of disappointments. “In reality, graphic designers usually serve clients — internal and external — who have needs, expectations, and demands” (Poland, 2006). “Graphic designers frequently must work with the needs and constraints of their clients and bosses to develop results that please a variety of people” (Poland, 2006).
On the other hand “many in-house graphic designers who have steady jobs for major agencies and companies” (Poland, 2006).
Findings show that “during times of economic crisis or financial instability, companies cut their marketing budgets and new product releases” (Poland, 2006).In addition to that, “This affects the creative sector and often results in layoffs and job losses. Graphic design is a field with booms and busts”. Typically, “People who love the work should plan for fluctuations based on business cycles and economic changes” (Poland, 2006).
However, the press associated with graphic design include “People with a lot of creativity and ideas may find graphic design rewarding”. (Poland, 2006). It has been shown that “great graphic designers see visual possibilities, and in many cases deliver concepts that guide the future of products, publications, and websites” (Poland, 2006).
On the other hand, it is demonstrable that “frequently, graphic designers solve problems by meshing concepts, finding new twists to traditional branding and finding ways to accommodate the needs of multiple parties, such as marketing, legal and product development departments” (Poland, 2006).
Because graphic design has many applications throughout several industries, designers can find themselves with many career choices and opportunities” (Poland, 2006). However, “graphic designers may find that if they get bored with one type of design, they can transition to others to reignite their spark” (Poland, 2006).
For example, “a newspaper layout designer may eventually transition to designing advertisements, which later in her career may lead to designing billboards and then product packaging. Skills gained in one setting can apply to others, giving graphic designers various and interesting potential career paths” (Poland, 2006).
Future of Graphic design
Based on the strength of the argument reinforcing the importance of graphic design related to internet communication, it is worth examining the future trends in graphic design (Kendall, 1995; Kelm, 1992; Kalman & Jacobs, 1993). Research shows the importance of graphic design in internet communication and for conducting other communication activities when communicating an idea or message to a specific audience (Poland, 2006).
Typically, graphic design is one of the underlying factors facilitating internet communication, with the design of any site strongly correlating the number of people who pay visits to a particular site. In addition to that, it has been demonstrated that graphic design has gained momentum is its development with the current trend showing the indispensability of graphic design, and graphic designers in enabling communication over the internet (Poland, 2006; Pelletieri, 2000; Ortega, 1997).
However, the argument that graphic design is a relatively new discipline with a growth rate characteristically exponential, organizations, individuals, and other user of the internet find the graphic design fundamental to enabling communication on the internet. The importance of graphic design is also demonstrated in the number of people learning graphic design and joining the discipline.
The employability of graphic designers also reinforces the importance of graphic design as used in the internet communication (Hafner & Lyon, 1996; Kern, R. (1995a; Kern, 1995b; Margolin, 1989; Meunier, 1998).
Despite the importance associated with graphic design, statistical evidence shows a dark crowd for those training in the discipline. Studies have shown a significant decline in the employability and demand of graphic designers in the recent past. In 2006, a drop of 26% was experienced in the job market for graphic designers, showing a negative trend in the employment of graphic designers.
Typically, the challenges graphic designers experienced contribute to the dismal statistics shown in the recent past. Among the challenges, include originality of the design, ability to aesthetically appeal or motivate users of the internet using graphics, the thin line dividing graphic designers and artists as a profession of its own, and confusion of the roles of artists and graphic designers.
To attain the goal of the current study of establishing the importance of graphic design related to online communication, the current research was a qualitative and quantitative study. Qualitative research focused on the review of available literature based on a number of objectives outlined in the introduction sections (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992; Pica, 1994).
On the other hand, quantitative research was conducted to supplement for any weaknesses in qualitative research and add value to the findings expressed in numerical form. While both research paradigms were complimentary in conducting the research, the quantitative research paradigm focused on data collection and analysis, using different tools and methods of data collection and analysis.
The results of data collection and analysis detailed and tabulated in the results section and the outcome of the data analysis and qualitative studies detailed in the discussion section had significant implications in the study (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992; Bourdieu, 1984; Bourdieu, 1990; Creswell,1994).
The current research aims to establish the importance of graphic design related to online communication with underlying facts and their implications on online communication. Typically, the current study is a social research that borrows from other disciplines to establish empirical evidence of the facts on the importance of graphic design related to online communication. It attempts to establish facts based on the qualitative research paradigm underlying definition of graphic design to develop a working context of this study.
The study framework variables have positive and negative implications on graphic design in online communication. Typically, the objective of the framework is to provide the basis for answering the research questions identified in the introduction section of the paper. The research methodology seeks to answer the research questions on the importance of graphic design related to internet communication (Creswell, 1994).
Typically, the literature provides the rational statements formulated by researchers and experts in the field of research with the aim to explain underlying reasons for any observation or outcome made in the research. That also draws on the significance and fulfillment of the research objectives. In a similar note, it is crucial to identify the functions of graphic design as the drivers of establishing the importance of graphic design related to online communication (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992).
A statistical analysis of the data collected will provide the basis for supporting the qualitative and quantitative findings, the literature, and other assumptions made in relation to graphic design (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995).
In addition to that, the study draws on the significance of the definition of graphic design, graphic designers, internet users, the functions of graphic design and graphic designers, the training of graphic designers, job outlook in the graphic design industry, and the types of fonts used in online communication in an interactive manner.
It also focuses on natural language processing and its implications in online communication, the impact of printed language, and the pros can cons of graphic design in online communication. The data collected in the study has its underlying rationale on the behavior and relationship between the variables in the study, which underlie the underlying characteristics of graphic design, graphic design as a discipline that has a strong and indispensable link to online communication, and other characteristics associated with graphic design.
It is crucial to note that different factors have significant implications on the use of graphic design and varied elements in the communication of ideas on the internet. Additional factors considered when conducting the study included a comprehensive and detailed understanding of the contributions of the types of graphic designs, limitations such as lack of sounds in online communication, and the implications of images in internet communication. The education discipline provided a typical case study on the importance of graphic design in online communication (Warschauer & Kern, 2000; Warschauer, Shetzer & Meloni, 2000; Warschauer, 1995).
Typically, one of the elements that have underlying support for use of graphic design is in the education discipline as a case example. Typically, cognition is a process that has strong relationship between the importance of graphic design and the kind of impressions graphics make in the mind of any person engaged acknowledge process (Warschauer & Kern, 2000; Warschauer, 1997; Meskill & Krassimira, 2000; Lixl-Purcell, 1995; Livesy & Tudoreanu, 1995).
That is based on form-meaning mappings that are entrenched in the mind of the learner. In addition to that, graphics provide the basis for cognition development in the learner as the cognition process is one of the crucial factors of developing learning skills and is an evaluation benchmark strongly correlated to construction of knowledge (Bill, 2004; Crystal, 1997; Cummins & Sayers, 1995; Drucker, 1985).
It is therefore crucial for an application’s score index to show features and support for the cognition development in the adult student’s mind using graphics (Odendahl & Shaw, 2002; Ebski, Gassin & Smith, 1997; Eckert & Stacey, 2000).
In theory, “the function of a research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables us to answer the initial question as unambiguously as possible” (Creswell, 1994; Odendahl & Shaw, 2002). A logical inquiry entails searching for concrete evidence to answer the research questions on the importance of graphic design related to internet communication.
Thus, the design will enable accurate description of the use of graphics in addition to the use of various types of fonts graphic designers use to create specific impressions in the mind of users when interacting online. It should be clear at this point that the design heavily draws on questionnaires administered to internet users, people who communicate online, graphic designers, and other stakeholders in the graphic design industry.
Respective respondents include students and even teachers who use the internet and the support graphic design provides in their instructional delivery to students. Others included people across the demographic divide. The study was informed through observations as one of the methods used in the study with document analysis forming the basis of providing evidence on the benefits associated with graphics in their class studies online (Odendahl & Shaw, 2002; Best & Kahn, 1993, Bill, 2004).
It was crucial when conducting the study to identify the type of questionnaires to administer and the approach used to administer the questionnaires to respective respondents (Lamy & Goodfellow, 1999).
On the other hand, it was deemed crucial to differentiate the research design from research methods used in the study to avoid introducing cross sectional errors that sometimes characterize a research design. In addition to that, the study used some case studies typically, in the education sector, and typical applications and some theoretical perspectives to explicitly differentiate between experimental researches not defined in the study and case study (Creswell, 1994; Warschauer, 1997).
Another tool identified for use in the study was interviews. Different people participated in the interviews. In addition to that, wide ranges of issues were considered when administering interviews. It was however, important to keep information provided with confidentiality to ensure that their privacy was preserved as agreed prior to the interviews (Odendahl & Shaw, 2002). Among those presented in the interviews were teachers, students, graphic designers, businesspersons, and the public that communicates online.
Typically, interviews involved providing instructions to students, graphic designers, and the general population across the demographic divides that use the internet for online communication. Typically, the objective was to answer the question on the impact and the importance of graphic design related to internet communication. However, it was crucial to establish the validity of interviews in providing reliable data for the current study.
Typically, the reliability of interviews was the fidelity and perspective of the interviewer. The interviewers in this case constituted researchers or team members recruited into the research team. These interviewers were people taken to training before commencing the data collection exercise. The teachers, students, and other third parties directly or indirectly affected by the study were among the sources of data used in the study.
The populations using to communicate interactively online were used to identify the problems associated with the use of graphics and the importance of graphic design related to internet communication. However, that does not that include standards against which the quality of training and the productivity of the graphic designer were measured.
Thus, it is important to conclude that using interviews had a number of limitations associated with the use of interviews as data gathering instruments. It is important to note that different authors concur on different problems that interviews present as data gathering instruments (Odendahl & Shaw, 2002).
One of the problems is persistence of record noted to occur in the same direction. The argument is that the interviewer is usually subject to the subjectivity of the subject to interview. In the current study, observations showed that the initial use of interviews registered validity problems with a high degree of persistence.
The persistence problem noted included biasness on the use graphics to communicate online based on interviewee attitude toward graphic designers, internet users, and on the importance of graphic design related to internet communication (Odendahl & Shaw, 2002).
Another crucial tool used in the current study was a questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered on population that had been identified to capture the data important for the study. Typically, data collection from the target population was characterized by a range of elements that included graphic designers, effects of different fonts, functions of graphic designers, and other factors that support features for positive and negative feedback, interactivity of the internet, availability of the application, and the response rates.
Other items that were considered salient to support graphic designers, internet users, and features integrated into the internet that supports communication on the internet. The data collected from the population identified in the study was critical to inform the study based on the elements used in the study (Chang & Schallert, 2005; Odendahl & Shaw, 2002). However, the above-mentioned items were among the other items used in the study (Odendahl & Shaw, 2002).
To obtain valid results, it was crucial to evaluate the questionnaire as a data-gathering tool to confirm its validity for use in the study. The questionnaire was the most appropriate data-gathering tool in the study based on its relative advantage to the case under investigation. Among the benefits associated with the use of a questionnaire included its convenience in administering to the respondents.
Though questionnaires were the basic component in the study, interviews at various points were used to make significant contributions to the research in question. In addition to the use of interviews, document analysis formed an additional backbone to the study as mentioned elsewhere in the paper. Questionnaires and interviews were used together to benefit from the synergy associated with using both tools in the acquisition of data.
Typically, besides the documents detailing the level of competence of graphic designers, internet users, and the importance of graphic design related to internet communication, it was crucial that the applications support interactivity based on integrated functionalities that support activity. In addition to that, it should enable the adult student to practice, provide the abilities for the student to acquire lexical competence of English as a case study based on integrated features that allow for high quality inputs and outputs.
In addition to that, it is crucial for the application to have the features that support learners in the process to develop in the cognition process using graphics, thus the importance of graphic design related to internet communication and the importance of graphic design related to internet communication using (Odendahl & Shaw, 2002).
On the other hand, it is important to comment that the study was characteristically longitudinal and involved a cross sectional design. One key element in the cross sectional design is that the approach draws from different research designs, the questionnaire as a dominant and common tool used in the study.
The study also incorporated an analysis of documents available for the study. Other salient features that were investigated that internet support in the communicating online including individualized content.
These features support intrinsic motivation, collaboration, feedback, access to authentic materials, interfaces that enable interactive use of the applications, teacher interactions with the student, the teacher’s presence, application layout, application that supports satisfactory response rates, support for other learning activities, and applications that are simple to use while offering high quality interactivity with the teacher and the adult student.
On the other hand, the support for high quality inputs and outputs were additional salient features that were factored into the research. Thus, the research design integrated these elements and other approaches of conducting research in the importance of graphic design related to online communication and data for analytical purposes. However, it is crucial to examine in detail the theoretical perspectives on the use of the questionnaire as a data-gathering tool (Odendahl & Shaw, 2002).
In theory, a questionnaire is a tool used to capture information from various respondents in a population targeted for the study. A questionnaire is a well thought out document with statements to which respondents provide feedback on their perceptions about a specified situation. Questionnaires have different designs purposely designed to fulfill a specific purpose in a study.
One important and critical characteristic of a questionnaire is that it is an evaluation tool administered after the occurrence of an event. Events in this case included the importance of graphic design related to internet communication. Typically, that is also in response to other events such as the outcome from the user process. However, a critical analysis of the situations in which the questionnaires were administered indicated that questionnaires at times could be administered even before the occurrence of an event (Zhao, 1996).
In the current study, the questionnaires served a critical purpose of capturing data relevant to the study. The data that was captured for analysis applied to teachers in the program, adult students in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication the importance of graphic design related to internet communication on , and others affected by the outcome of the use of in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication.
The questionnaires administered were designed with a high degree of clarity not to leave any ambiguity in the mind of the respondent. Typically, questionnaires were used to gather data relevant to the study to attain the ultimate aim of the study. The aim of the study was to study graphic designers, internet users, and the importance of graphic design related to internet communication.
Typically, the aim involved examining the entire issue of graphic designers, internet users, and in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication, and attempts to comprehend the support these applications provide the adult in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication. The questionnaires therefore were used to generate data that was analyzed to reinforce the rationale for using graphic designers, internet users, and in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication.
Questionnaires were identifiably the most appropriate tools to use in the current study due to the benefits associated with their use. One of the critical benefits associated with questionnaires are their applicability and flexibility of use in different learning and teaching environments.
It is important to design the questionnaire based on the problems associated with the communicating online. Other variables associated with the study. One critical component incorporated into the questionnaire design is the aim of the study. To formulate the study, therefore, a theoretical proposition will be inform the approach as detailed below. In theory, to design a good questionnaire, other issues to consider include the need for acquiring lexical competence in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication.
In the knowledge acquisition process using graphics as one of the tools that support online interaction, identification of the kind of data to collect and the source of data were valuable. Typically, the population under investigation critically influenced the outcomes of the questionnaires.
The actual environment dictates that the questionnaire has to address various and specific issues and factors that will, when analyzed, provide a strong case for a use of graphics in teaching graphic designers, internet users, and in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication.
In theory, a questionnaire design should be well drawn beforehand with careful considerations emphasized on at the planning stage for the types and kind of questions to pause to the respondents (Creswell, 1994). The respondents and the kind of information to collects from the respondents also influence the questionnaire at the design stage. In addition to that, the kind of response elicited due to the content represented in the questions should be carefully considered.
That allows the researcher to consider the kind of sampling to use and the target population. In addition to that, it is of critical importance to consider the fact that questions paused should be unambiguous and should be expressed in clear and simple language. In addition to that, the questions should be presented with sufficient detail to ensure clarity, precision, and to ensure the questions are straight to the point (Creswell, 1994).
Typically, the issues mentioned above are reflected in the format after which the questions are designed. On the other hand, the format used for the questionnaire presents the general layout of the questions and the logic that they are arranged with on the paper. Importantly, questions should be logically arranged not to confuse the respondent, but allow the respondent provide answers in a methodical manner (Creswell, 1994).
A general observation is that simple questions are always placed at the beginning of the document. In addition to that, the designer of the questionnaire ensures that the questions remain simple, clear and to the point, thus, avoiding any complexity in their design. On the other hand, the sequence of the questions considered and their layout examined for consistency with the case under investigation (Creswell, 1994).
It is important to conduct a test on the questions to identify any weak points for corrective actions. Once the pre-tests on the questionnaires administered on graphic designers, internet users, and on web, the importance of graphic design related to internet communication is completed, then corrections are done on the questions contained in the questionnaire prior to their large-scale application in the field under investigation.
Specific consideration of the environment under investigations is indicative of the design of the questions that target each respondent based on the kind of data the questionnaire to capture.
One other consideration factored into the design of the questionnaires included different theories that contributed to the importance of graphic design related to internet communication. These included cognition, motivation, and the use of, at different levels of the learning process. Moreover considered in the design were end-users of the internet infrastructure and the users.
During the questionnaire design process, it was critical to consider equality issues that accounted for gender, age, occupation of the adult student, the goals in the learning process, and other related variables that could influence the outcome in the learning process.
It was important when administering questionnaires to consider personal feeling people have when being asked questions related to age, gender, and educational levels. It was deemed vital to keep confidential the information once it had been made available depending on the applicability of the information to the research (Creswell, 1994; Warschauer, 1997).
Concerning the context of the study, it was important to examine one other characteristic of questionnaires. A typical characteristic of questionnaires is the level of confidence respondents accorded respondents. Respondents need assurance about the confidentiality of the information they provide without any negative implications on their well-being. In addition to that, the questionnaire should clearly state the reason for the information captured into the questionnaire and where the information to use (Creswell, 1994).
However, it was also worth identifying the fact that questionnaires are susceptible to low or high response rates. It was therefore the responsibility of the one conducting the survey to ensure response rates are maximized.
Various methods for maximizing responses include providing an introductory statement about the questionnaire and its intended purpose, and a mode of delivery that is cost free to the respondent. On the other hand, when responses rare not forthcoming particularly after two weeks expire from the date they were posted to the respondents, it is important to resend the questionnaires and reminder letters.
In the case for the use of web-based application and the importance of graphic design related to internet communication. , the responses were high due to a number of factors.
Among them included the facts that respondents were informed about the survey under consideration and the implications of the in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication on the remaining phases of the importance of graphic design related to internet communication lifecycle and other the importance of graphic design related to internet communication.
Many respondents were free to participate in the survey. In addition to that, teachers particularly at the each phase of the importance of graphic design related to internet communication implementation program were also integrated into the study in providing information related to the importance of graphic design related to internet communication for graphic designers, internet users. However, difficulties were experienced with some teachers who had never used as instructional methods of teaching English as a second language.
However, other teachers staff were supportive of the move as they realized the rationale to incorporate a in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication to improve the level of performance and quality of knowledge in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication.
The advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires as data gathering tools were considered in relation to the graphic designers, internet users, and the importance of graphic design related to internet communication. In addition to that, the advantages and disadvantages were also informed from theoretical perspectives of the merits and demerits of using questionnaires as survey tools (creswell, 1994).
Among the driving factors that made questionnaires appropriate tools to use included the flexibility, convenience, and the objectivity of administered questionnaires. In particular, questionnaires were identified to be instruments that had the advantage of being standard; therefore, the processing time for the resulting data was convenient and less complex. On the other hand, a large population sample could be covered in the study without the need to redesign the questions administered in the study (creswell, 1994).
However, various disadvantages were identified with the use of questionnaires. In theory, open-ended questions are difficulty to analyze, as they are highly subjective. On the other hand, closed ended questions are specific and smaller amounts of data are made available or processing. In addition to that, respondents may find it difficult to respond when given long-winded questionnaires with the possibility of providing superficial answers.
Based on the current study on graphic designers, internet users, and on the importance of graphic design related to internet communication, it was deemed wise to ensure the samples used in the study were well presented in the study. That required the use of different techniques to identify specific characteristics of the samples that were desirable to be covered in the study. Different techniques were employed to ensure accurate and fair distribution and representations in the sampling frame.
These included ensuring that each element with unique characteristics is included in the study. In addition to that, each element identified in the study has to be included in the frame to ensure fair representations (Best & Kahn, 1993; Kirk & Miller, 1986; Patton, 2002; Wainer & Braun,1988).
In theory, however, a number of problems are bound to arise during the study related to the approach of the sampling frame used in the study. However, the issues were identified prior to the study and methods put in place to ensure corrective measures were in put place to avoid the effects of inclusion and exclusion. These measures included identifying the elements that were missing and methods of incorporating them into the frame.
Another approach included identifying members not defined in the study that might have erroneously been included into the study to remove them. In addition to that, the process involved removing duplicate entries by examining and querying the statistical tool used for data entry and reducing the effects of group clusters, which may have negative implications on the groups to be examined (Cohen, 1985).
Distribution of the Sample Mean
To ensure higher levels of accuracy are attained, the distribution of the sample mean was subjected to statistical and validity tests. One of the approaches to ensure the sample distribution concurred with the requirements of data analysis; the distribution of the sample mean was subjected to a statistic test.
The sample was randomly selected from selected the population of independent observations. Replacements were done to ensure consistency of the characteristics of the samples remained consistent (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992; Denzin, 1978).
The mean of the samples selected for tests were calculated to obtain the sample mean under investigation. The mean of each of the samples were calculated from the entire distribution to form a sampling distribution of the mean.
A theoretical approach of calculating the variance and mean of the distributions of the mean can then be calculated based on the following mathematical relations. Different statistics methods can be used to calculate the distribution of the sample mean based on expectation mathematics.
In the mathematical relation, a population equivalent to X is selected for the study. Suppose the expectation for the population is E(X) =µ and suppose the variance of the sample under investigation is Var (X) =α2. On the other hand, suppose, n independent observations were made during the study for the population X, then from the study,
E(X1) = µ1, E(X2) = µ2, a condition uniformly characteristically repeating itself until the nth item, represented as E (Xn) = µn.
On the other hand, the variance of the mean mathematically related as Var(X) =α^2 is applicable for the entire series that terminates at Var (Xn) =α2
Thus, the sample mean specific to the population under investigation can be obtained as indicated in the following relation:
E (¥) =
where n is the sample size, and E (¥) is the sample mean. Deductively, therefore, the sample mean E (¥) is equivalent to µ.
On the other hand, the variance of the data can be calculated based on the equation Var (¥)=α2/, thus, the standard deviation can be calculated based on the equation, (α2/n)1/2 which is also the standard error of the distribution.
Data Collection for the Study
Data collection for the survey began with accurate description of the population to be surveyed. An accurate description of the population could provide a clear and focused approach to obtaining the actual data to be analysed in the study. In theory and practise, the target population included the following:
- Graphic designers
- Online users
After the categories were identified in the study, the researcher narrowed down to specific elements for inquiry in the study. These included the distribution of the graphic designers, internet users, and in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication, and the sizes of the adult population. On the other hand, teachers were examined in the inquiry specific to their specific level of tasks using in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication.
First, teachers working at different levels of the importance of graphic design related to internet communication were isolated in the study, and then questionnaires were administered to each of the teachers’ specific to their level of instructional tasks done by each individual teacher.
The period the teacher has provided instructions; either short or long were also considered in the study. However, some items and individuals were not included in the study. These included a listing of participating individuals as identified in the following description (Seale, 1999).
To ensure the results yielded using the questionnaire are valid, and the questionnaire could address all the issues raised in the research, the researcher initiated a pilot study to address the issues. In effect, the pilot study was one technique to address problems associated with earlier research techniques on performance evaluation of in the importance of graphic design related to internet communication (Healy & Perry, 2000).
The four major areas of the pilot study as a baseline to inform the study included the establishing underlying motivation for the study, motivational factors, lexical competence of the adult student after the acquisition process, and the support offered on online communication in cognition development of the adult student.
Other areas identified and included in the study were features integrated into the applications that that support interactive use of the application by the student and the teacher, features that allowed the teacher’s presence to be felt by the student, interface design that allowed flexibility in the use of the web based.
Other support items in the applications that support the instructional mode teacher adopted in teaching the adult student (Healy & Perry, 2000). The relationship between the indicators and the performance of adult after the acquisition program, the ranking, and implications of each performance indicator on the performance of student in the acquisition program, and the relationship between the performance of the adult student and the competence acquired after the studies (Lincoln & Guba, 2000).
Validity of research
The research relied on both qualitative and quantitative research techniques (Best & Kahn, 1993). The qualitative paradigm is embedded in recursive evaluation of the findings and is based on the research problem and the research questions (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992; Brown, 1992; Creswell, 1994).
In addition to that, qualitative research is open to a variety of inquisitive techniques. On the other hand, quantitative validation of the research draws heavily on measures against standard values embedded in a scaled measurement. In practise and in theory, both approaches can sanguinely inform the validity of a research (Lincoln & Guba, 2000).
In practise and in theory, deviations from the initial expectations based on the progress of the study are one critical element that indicates the study is incurring problems. In addition to that, the occurrence is evident when the initial assumption made about a specific study appears to be in conflict with new or current trend in the study, thus, failing to establish a level of consistency in the findings (Cohen & Manion, 1980; Davies & Dodd, 2002; Denzin, 1978).
Upon the administration of questionnaires, a significant number of responses received from the respondents were tabulated in the following table.
Table 4.1: Questionnaire Distribution for the Study
|Questionnaire Distribution to Graphic designers||Federal States of The United States|
|No. of questionnaire distributed||166||107||89||39||103||50|
|No. of questionnaire returned||152||98||77||18||2||33|
|No. of questionnaire discarded||8||5||2||1||44||13|
|No. of questionnaire used for analysis||44||93||75||07||9||20|
|% Response rate with respect to distributed questionnaire||91.57||91.59||86.52||84.89||89.32||8.67|
|Questionnaire internet users based with positive impact of on the Graphics|
|No. of questionnaire distributed||99||67||52||10||5||5|
|No. of questionnaire returned||96||63||52||1||5||7|
|No. of questionnaire discarded||1||1||–||2||–||4|
|No. of questionnaire used for analysis||93||63||52||9||5||3|
|% Response rate with respect rate||97||94.03||100||90||100||90.59|
|Factors related to the use of Graphics in the internet communication||N||Sum||Mean||Rank||Remark|
|Flexibility in providing feedback||144||576||4.00||11||HS|
|Inflexibility in providing feedback||144||645||4.48||5||VHS|
|Supporting positive feedback||144||675||4.69||1||VHS|
|Application graphic design layout||144||531||3.69||19||HS|
|Enabling negative feedback||144||672||4.67||3||VHS|
|Enabling effective use of features of the application||144||537||3.73||17||HS|
|Encourages users increase the frequency of using the application||144||534||3.71||18||HS|
|Increase the preference in the use internet||144||336||2.33||61||LS|
|Stimulates of periodic interactions with online users||144||378||2.62||57||MS|
|Type of graphic features usability incorporated into the online application||144||189||1.31||75||NS|
|Understandability of content||144||421||2.92||48||MS|
|High usage rates||144||576||4.00||11||HS|
|Disregard of the application’s features||144||438||3.04||33||MS|
|Lack of big picture view on behalf of the graphic designers||144||381||2.65||53||MS|
|Supports good communication between the teacher and the student in education||144||468||3.25||32||MS|
|Application offers functionalities that guide the user||144||519||3.60||22||HS|
|Graphics improve the frequency of usage of the application||144||416||2.89||49||MS|
|Makes a site attractive||144||627||4.35||6||VHS|
|Graphics reduce misunderstanding between the teacher and the student||144||434||3.01||37||MS|
|Lack of sounds complimented by the use of graphics||144||436||3.03||35||MS|
|Graphics facilitate communication||144||574||3.99||13||HS|
|Graphics motivates users to log into a site||144||340||2.36||60||HS|
|Helps teachers interact with students||144||390||2.71||50||MS|
|Lack of sounds discourages users||144||330||2.29||66||LS|
|Provides features for entertainment and recreation||144||388||2.69||52||MS|
|Lack of interactive features to enable quick responses in businesses||144||474||3.29||30||MS|
|Support thematic blogs||144||429||2.98||40||MS|
|No support for thematic blogs||144||336||2.33||61||LS|
|Importance of graphics||144||330||2.29||66||LS|
|Support for natural language processing||144||336||2.33||61||LS|
|Supports online marketing||144||390||2.71||50||MS|
|Attractive through decorations||144||381||2.65||53||MS|
|Associating images with words||144||672||4.67||3||VHS|
|Associating images with meaning||144||570||3.96||15||HS|
|Motivates online communication||144||477||3.31||27||MS|
Discussion and Recommendations
Analytically, based on the tabulated data, one draws a conclusion on the significance of graphic design related to internet communication. It is crucial to note that graphic design is a strong tool used to enable and support different forms of communication related to internet communication. That has transformed the virtual world into the real world. Ironically, graphic design has transformed the virtual world into the real world establishing a thin line between both worlds.
It is worth concluding to note that graphic design is a principal transformative force, transforming reality into the digital virtual world and the digital world into the real world. Typically, that is because the presence of the internet as one of the single most important factor that facilitates communication between different parties globally has added to the rationale for establishing the importance of graphic design as it relates to internet communication.
Graphic design, drawing from its definition based on a multidisciplinary approach indicates the significance of graphic design as a discipline underlying the growth of the internet as a means of communicating information and other forms of messages and ideas. It has been demonstrated based on statistical analysis that graphic design plays a significant role in internet communication.
Typically, that is based on the services provided on graphic design, which include facilitation of online business, support for online marketing, ability to persuade users to buy into an idea, aesthetical representations of the real word on the virtual world, and other benefits for users of the internet.
On the other hand, facts about the importance of graphic design and graphic designers is based on the services they offer in designing tailored and customized applications to provide the functionalities and interactivity that suits a range of users, with case studies including students who conduct their studies on web-based applications. However, the importance associated with graphic design, statistical evidence shows a dark crowd for those training in the discipline.
Studies have shown a significant decline in the employability and demand of graphic designers in the recent past. In 2006, a drop of 26% was experienced in the job market for graphic designers, showing a negative trend in the employment of graphic designers. Typically, the challenges graphic designers experienced contribute to the dismal statistics shown in the recent past.
Among the challenges, include originality of the design, ability to aesthetically appeal or motivate users of the internet using graphics, the thin line dividing graphic designers and artists as a profession of its own, and confusion of the roles of artists and graphic designers.
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