The policy of helping countries in need is an indicator of a developed and civilized society where the leaders of successful states are ready to take an active part in supporting those countries that have faced various problems. As a rule, military conflicts are frequent causes of humanitarian and other types of aid. Wars cause destruction and famine; however, they are not the only conditions for foreign aid. Some support may also be provided in peacetime to stimulate the economy of a particular country and protect the interests of its citizens. As an example, Sudan can be taken, the state in northern Africa, which had a rather complex history of formation. This developing country has more than once received assistance from other countries with a more developed economy. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate all the possible consequences of military coups and peacetime in Sudan for foreign aid and to analyze the behavior of the local government concerning such measures.
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Positive and Negative Effects of Peace and War on the Distribution of Foreign Aid
Those military actions that continued in Sudan for twenty-two years caused famine and devastation in the country. A huge number of refugees fled their homeland. It was the war that caused some food reserves to be transferred to two confrontation camps in 1989 (Lischer, 2015). Also, at the end of the war, it was decided to allocate a considerable amount of money to Sudan by the European Commission for the reconstruction of the country after its crisis. Until that time, there had been no prerequisites for the distribution of humanitarian aid among the population. A long civil war can be considered the primary and the only factor that determined the need for assistance.
Despite some protection from developed countries, Sudan would hardly have received appropriate assistance if the threat of a military conflict had not been so acute. According to Sawyer, Cunningham, and Reed (2017), the amount of loans and humanitarian charges is a value that, to a certain extent, determines the level of interest of countries with a strong economy in the development of more backward states. Due to the fact that the country of Sudan was in civil war for more than twenty years, it is possible to assume that insufficient measures were taken to prevent military conflicts. The number of refugees is proof that foreign aid was distributed in small amounts, and even the serious consequences of the war could not affect the reconstruction of the country.
Actions Taken by the Leadership of Sudan
Despite some countries’ attempts to help Sudan in rebuilding the state after the consequences of the war, significant steps were not taken by the government to solve all the existing problems. As Juselius, Møller, and Tarp (2014) note, Sudan was one of the few countries that had a rather stable economy even despite problems inside the country. Nevertheless, the local government not only failed to take effective decisions but also even worsened the situation. The fact is that food was used as a tool for manipulating the citizens of the state, and those humanitarian goods that were transferred to Sudan did not always reach the needy (Juselius, Møller, & Tarp, 2014). Therefore, the actions of the local government can be assessed as illegal rather than effective.
Effects of the Extension of Foreign Aid in Sudan
Financial and other types of assistance from developed countries can become quite a good tool in the hands of experienced government to establish order in the country. According to Packenham (2015), the effects of foreign programs to support developing countries tend to be positive, and the establishment of order is a natural process of such aid. However, with regard to Sudan, the expansion of foreign aid in practice did not reduce poverty and war in that country. People continued to starve and observe constant deaths even after some states intervened in their country’s policies to stop degradation. Steinwand (2015) claims that “stability-oriented aid reduces the risk of political destabilization only under narrow circumstances” (p. 395). The case of Sudan is a vivid example of such circumstances when the government of the country cannot and does not want to take important measures to protect the population, and no help is provided to improve the situation.
The end of the war served as the beginning of the country’s development and building a new, more civilized society. Nevertheless, a huge number of refugees left the country forever to save their lives. Sudan’s economy suffered significantly from the crisis, and today, the aid of developed countries can be useful only if it is competently and efficiently distributed.
Thus, an assessment of the effectiveness of foreign aid distribution in Sudan made it possible to conclude that assistance was provided during the war to prevent famine and the deaths of civilians. Nevertheless, the government did not use aid according to generally accepted rules and manipulated it, threatening people. Assistance is effective if it is used to meet the needs of the population rather than to enrich individuals. Proper allocation of resources can be a useful tool in rebuilding the country after a military crisis.
Juselius, K., Møller, N. F., & Tarp, F. (2014). The long-run impact of foreign aid in 36 African countries: Insights from multivariate time series analysis. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 76(2), 153-184.
Lischer, S. K. (2015). Dangerous sanctuaries: Refugee camps, civil war, and the dilemmas of humanitarian aid. New York, NY: Cornell University Press.
Packenham, R. A. (2015). Liberal America and the Third World: Political development ideas in foreign aid and social science. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sawyer, K., Cunningham, K. G., & Reed, W. (2017). The role of external support in civil war termination. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 61(6), 1174-1202.
Steinwand, M. C. (2015). Foreign aid and political stability. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 32(4), 395-424.