A transformation model is comprised of elements that are considered to be on the transformation priorities of an organization. Different people over the years have regarded the transformation process to be a difficult task. This is attributed to the huge brain capacity needed to ensure the transformation elements are working (Morgan, 2010, p. 247). On the other hand, operations are regarded as activities that are directly linked to the objective purpose of the organization, both in the production of goods or services. Operations as a function, is distinctively distinguished from other functional sectors of an organization. The other sectors include: accounting, finance or personnel (Summers, 1998, p. 1).
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Atlanta International Airport is one of the organizations in America that is attributed to the employment of over a thousand employees. Some of the employed staff members are based in the 300 and above organizations within the airport. Despite the millions of passengers the airport handles, it has emerged to be one of the efficient as well as properly managed airports across the globe.
Micro-operations, resources and operation management
In an organization, an operation is normally broken down into micro-operations for the sole purpose of managing the intended operations, as well as generally improving the organization. The effects of the micro-operation are based on the production of goods and services, which in return satisfy the needs of the customers. A combination of contributions that results from micro-operation and satisfaction of customer needs are called processes (Barnes and Open University, 2001, p. 27). In all operations, resources are used in form of inputs and are incorporated into the operating systems. It is through the actions taken within the organization as well as the undertaking of decisions by the management that converts the inputs into the intended outputs. In this perspective the operation is hence considered to be a transformational model as it has three components. The three components include: 1) Input elements. The input elements incorporate the transforming resources of operations such as the existing facilities and people, as well as transformed resources such as materials and information. 2) Conversion process. The conversion process incorporates activities of operation management that take effect as the transformation process takes place. 3) Outputs elements. The output elements are regarded as the outcome of incorporation of both the input resources as well as relevant conversion resources. In regards to this, the transformation model is considered to be a framework that is used to evaluate both the strength and weakness capacities of an operation.
In relation to Atlanta international air port, there are numerous of activities that contribute to the daily operations of the air port. In the baggage handling department, there are a number of different operations that are incorporated. Some of these operations include: sorting out, checking and finally dispatching the bags to the appropriate departing flights. The ticketing department deals with the millions of passengers that pass through the air port’s corridor with the aim of getting to their different destinations. Each and every micro-operation is supposed to structure its own departmental plans. With micro-operation in mind, the plans or strategies that have been structured will be of great importance especially in the overall decision making process of the macro-operation.
Micro-operations in organizations are regarded as functions that are individually within the general framework of the organization, such as operations, finance, marketing and so on. The efficiency as well as the effectiveness of the micro-operations within an organization, has a huge impact on the performance of the business as a whole. Macro-operation on the other hand is attributed to influencing the performance of the micro-operations. In all operations undertaken by an organization, the operations tend to make use of the resources they have in form of inputs to the existing operating systems. It is through decision making process and management that these operations convert the inputs into the required outputs. The operations can be viewed as transformation models only if they possess the distinctive components of a model. The components include: 1) Input elements. The input elements consist of transforming resources of operations which includes the likes of facilities and people 2) Conversion process. In the conversion process component, activities of operation management are carried out and are as they occur during transformation process. 3) Output elements. The output elements are considered to be the outcomes that result from input resources incorporation into the process and its significance to the appropriate conversion processes.
In the service concept as the ones offered by the various organizations based in the Atlanta international airport, the key elements are regarded to be the service experience, the organizing idea, the service operation, the service value and the service outcome. All in all the decisions that are undertaken in the management of operations must coincide with the business and corporate strategic objectives of the organization. In doing so, the business will uphold competition within the industry. The levels of strategies are dictated by the size and type of the organization in question. The first type of strategy is the corporate strategy. The corporate strategy mainly deals with the long- term objectives of the organization. The second type of strategy is the business strategy. The business strategy mainly deals with the individual functions of the organization such as finance and the competitive edge they have to compete in the industry. The third and last strategy is the functional strategy. The functional strategy deals with the ability possessed by the individual functions in managing the existing resources within the organization, and their ability to fulfill the objectives set by the organization. All in all operation strategy is composed of two parts. The first part is the content incorporated in the operation strategy and the second part is the actual process of the operation strategy.
In regards to micro-operations, the operation plan or strategy is regarded to be “the total pattern of decisions and actions which set the role, objectives and activities of each part of the operation so that they contribute to and support the operations strategy of the business.” With this in mind, each and every micro-operation will have an effect on the rest of the micro-operations. The contributions that are achieved from micro-operation, vary from one micro-operation to another. The flow of materials, information and customers between the various micro-operations is considered to be complex in nature and one that is encountered with delays as well as recycling. These contributions that are achieved from the various micro-operations are meant for the fulfillment of the consumer needs, and they are referred to as business processes. They are attributed to addressing the main objectives of an organization and most of the time they are involved in organization boundaries of conventions. No function within an organization can play a role in the strategic plan if it is not assisted by other departments of the organization. Operations within an organization are mainly grouped into five performance objectives. These objectives are prioritized according to the needs of the customers as well as the measures undertaken by the competitors. The performance objectives include: 1) Quality. This is doing what is required and doing it right. 2) Speed. This is undertaking the operations in a quick and efficient manner. 3) Dependability. Dependability in an organization refers to doing things correctly and on time. 4) Flexibility. Flexibility involves the ability to change the usual procedures without any hardships. 5) Cost. Cost deals with the ability of the organization to undertake its businesses cheaply.
Operation systems within the organizations are mainly influenced by the environment within the organization. The environment includes functional areas of the organization. These functional areas comprise of the policy’s goals, assumptions and resources. According to the principles used, operations are regarded as simple to comprehend. The operations are regarded as the activities that are involved directly in the production of products or offering of services. In simpler terms, operations can be regarded as the processes a particular organization does. In organizations, the managers or directors that are involved in operations are mainly attributed to numerous responsibilities. They are responsible for: 1) staffing, which means that they have to ensure the organization has the right people for the right position, 2) motivating, which involves encouraging employees and empowering them to undertake their job correctly, 3) monitoring, which involves constantly checking the processes within the organization with reference to the set objectives and 4) informing, which entails updating the appropriate authorities within the organization of the progress made. It is the decisions made by these operation managers that are regarded to be essential in working of the organization. The decisions made, affects the outputs, inputs and the whole of the operations that are carried out. The feedback attained regarding the performance is used in future decision making processes. The operations that are undertaken by the organizations are said to be within an external environment that comprises of the government, society, competition and national priorities.
At first glance, the operations in the various organizations are depicted to lack any similarities. However, upon a closer look one tends to find a lot of similarities. In terms of problems, the managers in the various organizations tend to face similar problems. It is important for the managers to make their decisions in the context of the overall business and not in isolation. This is because the decisions made in the general context of the business will be properly coordinated with the rest of the functions within the organization. It is also important for the managers to understand that the decisions they make, may result in consequences that could last in years to come.
The operations function is mandated with the resource management that is crucial in the production of both the services and goods within an organization. The mentioning of resources brings to mind two types of resources that are used to define the transformation model. Transformed resources are one of these resources, and are regarded as resources that transform and become part and parcel of the output process. This therefore means that materials, customers and information are examples of the transformed resources. The second resource is regarded as transforming resources. Transforming resources are described as resources that are crucial in the transformation process while at the same time they are not part of the output. The transforming resources are classified into three categories: 1) Facilities: facilities are termed as resources that are critical in the carrying out of the process but at the same time are not used up in the actual operation. Good examples of facilities are: plants, buildings and land. These resources are meant to be used in the years to follow. 2) Consumables: The consumable resources are the actual resources that are used up in the operation. They include the energy needed for machines and plants to operate and materials needed for their maintenance. 3) People: human resources are the vital resource needed to undertake the actual operation. Good examples are employees and staff members within the organization. In addition to this, employees of other organizations who happen to be associated with the organization in question are also included in the human resource category (Barnes, 2008, p. 6).
The Atlanta international air port has incorporated both the transformed and transforming resources within its operations. The over 80 million passengers that are attended to by the air port in a year are regarded as part of the transformed resources. On the other hand transforming resources are considered to be the over 10,000 employees it has employed and the 300 staff members based in the different organizations within the airport.
The operations director has a crucial role to play in the successful flow of operations within the airport. This is because he or she is in charge of the coordination of the various activities and operations within the airport. The structuring of proper procedures as well as process is attributed to be the driving force behind the success of Atlanta air port, which is termed as one of the busiest airport across the globe. Operation management deals with a systematic direction as well as control of processes. In addition to this, operation management is more involved in making use of the any available resources for the sole purpose of attaining complete goods or services. Operations management is also associated with the objectives and goals of the organization. It incorporates resources such as equipment, materials, money, time and people. This therefore indicates that it is mainly involved in functional areas of the organization. The operation system on the other hand, deals with transformation of inputs into output. In conclusion, despite the various existing functional areas within the organization, there is always the need to incorporate management in the transformation processes. In incorporating management in the transformation processes, efficiency and effectiveness will be the results. In an organization, operation managers or directors mainly focus on organizing, planning and controlling of operations that have an effect on human behavior. Planning is regarded as activities that indicate the guidelines for future decision making processes. In planning, the operation director is responsible for defining the aims of the operations within the organization and the policies as well as the procedures of attaining the stated goals. In organizing, the mandate of the operation director in mainly vested in structuring of roles in the operations. It is their role to determine the processes required in the attainment of the objectives stipulated. Under control, the operation director has the duty of ensuring the intended operations are achieved and at the same time ensuring that quality, schedules and cost are controlled. In the process of the operations managers undertaking their responsibilities in planning, organizing and controlling, they tend to face many difficulties which call for strategic decisions to be made (Shah, 2010, p. 147).
Systems in organizations are defined as entities that are related. This definition is of extreme importance to the operation manger as well as any management position within the organization. The issue is that, most organizations are composed of departments or various sections. This however is not the case in the production of goods and services. The services of organizations are delivered in relation to the integration systems of entities within the organization. Therefore solidifies the importance of systems view to the operations manager of an organization. In the system view, the operations manager has the opportunity of monitoring the whole process from concept point to its completion. From an operations management point of view, the inputs and outputs and the damage done by inaccurate information, are supposed to be identified. Any operation system can be regarded as a combination of three main components that are linked in terms of communication. To the operations manager, each and every pathway of operations is of extreme importance. Terms like inputs are regarded as resources that are incorporated in a system in both controlled as well as organized manner. The transformation process, itself is made up of service operations which are regarded to the changing of input resources for the sole purpose of adding value. Outputs within the system are attributed to services that are considered to be of high quality and at the same time of the right quantity. Other outputs that may be of interest to the operations manager include: finished product that is rejected, bad public relations and high turnover of labor. Processes are attributed to cutting across the various departments of organizations. Programmes on the other hand are regarded as schedules or plans which form the basis of carrying out the operations. These programmes are often standardized ranging from the production plan up to the master schedule. Procedures in the in the operations, entails how the operations are to be carried out. The procedures are described as a traditional field upon which operations managers often study. In every task that is to be undertaken in an organization, there is a safer and appropriate way of doing it. In modern times, it is the responsibility of the operations manager to ensure work standards are met. In any organization the operations management is has a distinctive as well as a strategic role to play. It is the way tan organization undertakes it role in operations management that will determine the dimensions of competition, which include the price, the quality, the flexibility, the design and the speed of goods or services.
The McDonald’s corporation is regarded as one of the successful businesses in America. Its motto which was attained in 1959 indicated “Quality, service cleanliness and value” still runs up to date. The McDonalds concept was bought by Ray Kroc, who later spearheaded the corporation to attain recognition as one of the world’s notable business icons. The company is founded on a resource perspective with the operations streamlined to resemble the foundation of its success. Since its inception the company adopted the concept of offering fast service despite the limited menu it possessed. This attracted the customers who were tired of the long delays subjected to them by the waiter services. The menu was limited in order to offer standard operations that are efficient and fast. The corporation incorporates a resource perspective in their operation strategy. In addition to this the corporation has spread its operations to most of the various economies of the world while at the same time it maintaining its operation’s format. This therefore means that a customer can get the same quality of service on the different McDonald’s restaurants in spite of their different localities. These unique capabilities are attributed to the efficient operations that the corporation has adopted. The MacDonald’s restaurants have grown to be the world’s known quick service restaurants with over 30,000 restaurants in 119 countries (Waters, 2006, p. 145).
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Organizations across the globe have operation functions which are attributed to the either production of goods or services and at a times both the goods and services. In relation to this, the organizations have operation managers or directors who are responsible for ensuring the running of these operation functions. The importance of the operations functions is crucial in an organization, in that it has an impact on the best way forward an organization can take in satisfying its customer’s needs. The input resources within an organization can be categorized as transforming resources as they include the facilities and the staff, while the resources that are acted upon in terms of customers, materials and information are regarded as transformed resources. The transformed resources are said to be transformed by the operation. In an organization any operation is depicted as a transformation process. This is because the operation is attributed to the conversion of inputs of resources to the output of goods and services. In the case study provided of Atlanta international airport, the transformed resources can be considered to be the millions of passengers the airport deals with while the transforming resources are the numerous employees and staff that are employed by the air port. The Operation director of the Atlanta air port is mandated with numerous management functions that are generally summarized in three functions. The first function is planning, which incorporates guidelines for decision making. The second function is organizing, which involves structuring of roles and the third function is controlling which ensures actual performance is undertaken according to the performance that was planned.
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Barnes, D. and Open University., 2001. Understanding business: processes. NY: Routledge.
Morgan, M., 2010. Executing Your Business Transformation: How to Engage Sweeping Change without killing yourself or your business. NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Shah, B., 2010. Textbook of Pharmaceutical Industrial Management, 1/e. New Delhi: ELSEVIER.
Summers, R. M., 1998. Analyzing operations in business: issues, tools, and techniques. CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
Waters, D., 2006. Operations strategy. London: Thomson Learning.