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Concepts of the Human Papillomavirus Research Paper

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Updated: Apr 13th, 2020

Introduction

The human papillomavirus belongs to the group of the most widespread type of sexually transmitted infections. It is a viral infection that targets specific sections of the body, which include the mucosal regions and the entire skin. Primarily, these regions are covered by epithelial cells, and they include the sex organs; the vagina and penis, mouth, vulva, anus, tonsils, and the throat. In some cases, the tongue is also inclusive; the fact that medics attribute to its role during “sucking.”

In nature, there exist more than hundred known species of this type of virus, which have many associated medical complications, whereby forty species have many associated cervical health complications and fifteen species have a close correlation to cancer; more so the genitals. The primary mode of transmission of this viral infection is through any skin contact; specifically genital area contacts, which include any form of sex, whether anal or oral.

It is important, to note that, in rare cases do condoms prevent the transmission of this viral infection; a fact that many types of research attribute on its inability to coat the entire genital region. In some cases, the transmission mode can be a mother to child; something that mostly occurs during childbirth hence, resulting in a health complication in children called Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORPP).

On the other hand, it is also crucial to note that, chances of contracting this infection multiplies with the number of sexual associates hence, the need for multi-partnered individuals to take precaution (Center for Diseases Control and Prevention: CDC p.1, Castle Para. 6-9).

Screening, Signs, and Symptoms

The infection has no exact form of manifestation, a fact that medics attribute to the ability of the body’s immune system to eliminate the virus from the body in a period of two years. Also, in case of signs appear, their physical manifestation takes a long time to be visible, whereby such manifestations are in the form of warts; some form of bumps on the skin that are itchy and painful.

Other manifestations of the infection occur in the form of other infections, which include some certain types of cancer primarily cervical, and throat infections (Health Center Network Para. 9-11).

Such opportunistic infections are detectable through screening, a practice that occurs mostly in cancer detection. There exist two kinds of such screening test, namely the Pap smear and HPV tests. The former plays a central role in determining the occurrence of pre-cancers and other cell alterations, which may, in the long run, develop into cancer. The latter is crucial in ascertaining the presence of cervical cell changing viruses. Combination of the two is fundamental when it comes to avoiding the occurrence of cervical cancer (CDC p.1).

Treatment and Prevention

Medically, this infection has no curative medication, but rather the only available remedies to this infection are drugs that cure its resultant infections, which include all forms of cancer and genital warts. It is important to note here that, in some cases, genital or throat warts can diminish without any medical remedy, a case that is a little bit different from cancer.

This is because; treatment of cancer depends on its severity in individuals. Common adopted wart treatment measures include the application of laser energy, cold cautery, loop electrosurgical excision procedure, or the use of podophyllin when it comes to external cases (Mouth Cancer Foundation Para. 6).

Because this infection lacks a curative remedy, it is important for all individuals to adopt preventive measures rather than risk contracting the infection. Primary preventive measures are many ranging from the use of medication to sexual responsibility. Vaccines form the first preventive remedy, which any individual can use. Medically, individuals are supposed to take three doses of the vaccines in a period of half a year, whereby, it is advisable for individuals to do so before any sexual intimacy.

For women, the most recommended vaccines include Cervarix and Gardasil, a case that is different when it comes to men because only one type is recommended; Gardasil. The recommended age span for the use of such vaccines ranges from nine to twenty-six, depending on whether one had received such vaccines in early life years (CDC p.1).

Condom usage forms the second recommended preventive measure, although not a sure strategy, because sometimes they may not wrap all the exposed genital areas. If in case one opts to use them, then there is a need for consistency and proper use to ensure continuous protection.

The third and one of the best remedy that is most essential in the war against HPV is the faithfulness concept that is, sticking to one sex-mate. It is important to note that, married couples are never exempted from contracting this viral infection, due to chances of unfaithfulness. The final and most appropriate remedy is abstinence primarily because; the infection’s detection is hard because most individuals are sexually active.

HPV Vaccines and their Safety

As a prevention measure, it is advisable for sexually active individuals to use vaccines as an early precautionary measure. Recommended vaccines include Gardasil and Cervarix. Although some medical researches indicate that the vaccines have a close correlation to other health complications, for example, the Guillain-Barre syndrome, the World Health Organization: WHO (p.1) has disputed such allegations for they are false.

The only side effects that can result as a result of the use of the e vaccines include giddiness, some form of mild allergic reactions, and fainting. It is important to note that, as argued by the National Network for Immunization Information: NNII (p.1), such vaccines must undergo a critical laboratory analysis and testing to prove their effectiveness and potentialities in terms of achieving the desired results.

HPV and Cancer

HPV has many associated opportunistic infections, the most complex being cancer. The most common type of cancer in most patients suffering from this infection is cervical cancer, although researches have shown that, few cases of oral cavity and oropharynx cancer occurs. The Common types of this infection causing viruses; HPV, are HPV-species 16, 31, 18 and 45. Theses for types cause dysplasia tissue anomalies, something, which unless treated result s to tissue malignancy.

Because of the structural correlation between the mouth and the vagina, such infections also occur in the mouth causing oral related cancers, a fact that medical researchers attribute to the destruction of the epithelial cells. It is important to note that, for oral cancer to occur there, has to be a combination of other triggering factors, which include nicotine and alcohol consumption (Mouth Cancer Foundation Para. 4-5).

Conclusion

In conclusion, considering the severity of infections associated with HPV, it is important for all individuals to be cautious in their sexual activity. This is because the determination of sufferers of this infection is hard; a factor that makes it spreading easy.

Works Cited

Castle, P. : Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. 2010. Web.

Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. (HPV). CDC. 2010. Web.

Health Center Network. Human Papillomavirus. USA Today. 2010. Web.

Mouth Cancer Foundation. Mouth cancer and the human papilloma virus. Webmed. 2010. Web.

National Network for Immunization Information: NNII. HPV vaccines. 2010. Web.

World Health Organization. . WHO. 2010. Web.

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