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Diet and Nutrition: European Diabetes Report

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Updated: May 17th, 2020

Introduction

A diabetic diet is a regiment that is an essential part of the treatment of patients that suffer from this condition. The most significant dissimilarity from others is that the overall purpose is different. The primary goal is to have an eating plan that includes only healthy foods to control glucose in the blood. Numerous foods are recommended for those who are affected by this condition. Fruits and vegetables are often preferred because they contain fructose. Also, it is paramount to understand which foods should be avoided. The most important fact that should be taken into account is that products that contain fats or sugar are especially dangerous because an overdose may lead to severe consequences. Medical nutrition is one of the significant cornerstones of successful management of this condition (Marsh, Barclay, Colagiuri, & Brand-Miller, 2011). It is also essential that another primary goal of this diet is to maintain weight at a certain level, where it would not cause any problems. Calories should always be limited, and individuals should not overeat. Specific rules also should not be disregarded. For example, it is not wise to drink alcohol on an empty stomach because it may affect blood sugar and others. The effectiveness of this diet varies from patient to patient, and necessary adjustments should be made to eliminate this issue.

History

Geography

The first known diabetes diet was developed in Egypt. People did not understand the cause of disease at that time, but they were able to determine that increased consumption of carbohydrates reduces the symptoms. Scientists have noted the connection between the diet and this condition over the years and tried to figure out the cause of diabetes. There were different kinds of therapies. Some of them focused on the increased consumption of potatoes and other vegetables. It is also quite interesting that there was an opinion that starvation can be used as a diet option to treat this condition by American scientists Frederick Allen and Elliott Joslin (Mazur, 2011). The treatment was extremely controversial and ineffective and has resulted in numerous deaths because patients often suffered from starvation. However, it is essential to realize that there was no alternative way of fighting the disease at that time, and any possible solution should have been considered. Fasting and limitation of calorie intake were used as the primary treatment options. It could not be viewed as an effective method because it only increased the lifespan but did not address central issues. The diet in the nineteenth century in Italy consisted of lean meat and alcohol that was diluted (Sawyer & Gale, 2009). In 1995, it was discovered that Precose is the most effective with a particular diet to make sure that the amount of sugar in the blood is under control (Sattley, n.d.).

Nevertheless, the situation has drastically improved over recent years, and some available options are much more appropriate. Currently, numerous kinds of diabetic diets are quite efficient. However, the number of people that are affected by this condition has dramatically increased because of significant changes to production methods.

Culture

The fact that there are vast dissimilarities between this group of dieters and others should be addressed. One of the most significant differences is that it is much more critical for this group of individuals because their health and well-being are dependent on nutrition. This diet is a crucial part of the overall treatment and has a tremendous impact on the lifestyle of an individual. One of the noteworthy problems is that this condition cannot be cured, and one should get used to such eating behaviors. Psychological aspects are especially crucial and should be considered because many struggles with the realization that they have to deal with it for the rest of their lives. However, it is essential that one can make slight changes to the diet when some products become too repetitive, and the necessity to consume them may lead to depression, anxiety, and other severe mental conditions. Beliefs play a significant role, and they have an enormous influence on the products that are chosen by individuals for the diet. The fact that this diet is not short-term is also quite significant, and the taste preferences of a person have an enormous impact. It is also interesting that some people still do not like to consume fruits and vegetables, even when considering the fact that they have proven to be excellent for health. Ethnic food should also be viewed as a significant factor because some of the meals are not healthy, but they are consumed as a part of the tradition. Overall, it is paramount to keep track of ingredients in meals that are consumed throughout the day

Important Change Agents

New technologies in the food industry had an enormous influence on the diet because they helped to make sure that some of the products are healthy for those who suffer from diabetes and do not lose their quality over time. New transportation options were also essential because they allow the products to be delivered and packaged much faster. The use of some technologies is necessary to make sure that foods retain their qualities. Improvement of food processing systems was also quite crucial. However, it should be said that there are negative influences of the technology because some products that were previously not available have led to the increased prominence of this condition. Numerous dietary supplements that are sold as pharmaceuticals are available. However, their effectiveness is often questionable, and there is little evidence that would suggest that they can be useful as a part of this diet. Governments are often fighting with such products, and try to prohibit the production of most dangerous ones with some success. However, it should be said that there are still some dangerous ones on the market.

Innovation

Numerous innovative foods have been introduced over the years. It is not an easy task to consume necessary amounts of plants, and juices help to address this issue. There are also improvements in packaging that were needed to keep the products fresh much longer. The regiment has been improved over the years, and currently, there are numerous alternatives to the traditional one. A vegetarian diet can be viewed as one of the options for diabetes diet because the reduction of intake of meat has various benefits and reduces possible risks that are associated with this disease. High protein diets are quite popular nowadays because it helps with weight loss. It is instrumental thanks to the fact that it increases satiety, which is one of the most critical factors that affect food intake. The higher risk of cardiovascular diseases should be considered because it is a significant side effect. It should be said that there are studies that indicate that such a diet may cause the harmful effects of lipids.

Research has shown that plants should be valued over animals as a source of protein to increase the effectiveness of the treatment (Evangelista et al., 2009). One of the studies that focused on high-protein diets has shown that it can be used as an effective method of treatment of type two diabetes, and the need for pharmacologic interference will be limited (Nuttall, Schweim, Hoover, & Gannon, 2007). It is also interesting that a recent study has shown a vegan diet that was focused on low fats was more efficient when it comes to the improvement of glycemia than standard diabetes diet (Barnard et al., 2009). Also, it is essential to say that there is no necessity to follow such regiments, but it should be beneficial for the health of a person. It is vital that recommendations for this diet are now evidence-based. Overall, there have been numerous innovations over the years that have had a dramatic influence on this regiment.

Resources

It is indispensable to develop a diabetes diet plan. A professional should guide one through the process, and the preferences of a patient should be taken into account. Products that cause allergic reactions should be avoided at all costs. It is paramount to address the fact that a professional should monitor the process because some individuals can show resistance to the regimen (Kavookjian et al., 2005). It is also essential to consider the fact that there is a possibility that there are some comorbidities that should be taken into account during the development of a diet plan. Allergic reactions to specific products are also possible and should be evaluated. It is also quite paramount to note that this diet has an immense influence on social activities. Some may not be able to share meals and drinks with their friends and relatives. However, the importance of this regiment should be acknowledged and not disregarded. The timing of meals is essential, and several options can help with this task.

Also, the opinions of others and recommendations should be considered. Nutritional counseling would be quite helpful for most individuals that need to be educated about this diet (Polak, Dill, Abrahamson, Pojednic, & Phillips, 2014). It is necessary to acknowledge the fact that numerous books that are focused on such diets are currently available. Still, their content is often questionable, and one should consult with a specialist before attempting self-treatment. Only trusted sources of information should be considered because possible complications are hazardous. Some foods are suggested to be the healthiest for those who suffer from this condition. Also, it is tough to maintain a diet regiment, and it is one of the most significant issues that are present. Moreover, psychological barriers should not be disregarded. Overall, it is necessary to address both psychological and physiological aspects before the start of the diet. Overall, several resources are needed to start this diet.

Contemporary uses

Production Methods

Food production systems have been dramatically improved and modernized over the years because the industry has acknowledged the need for such products. However, it is necessary to say that some of the products that are suggested for those with diabetes are not healthy. Fructose that is used in their production is associated with increased risks of development of cardiovascular conditions. It is imperative to note that recent research has shown that it does not have a noticeable effect on insulin (Cozma et al., 2012). However, further investigation of its effectiveness may be required. It is necessary to note that most diet foods do not contain a reduced amount of vitamins, as believed by many (Oakes, 2004).

Numerous dietary supplements contain multivitamins, magnesium, vitamin C, chromium, and others. Also, many pre-made meals are available on the market. They are made with consideration of unique aspects of this condition and are cooked very fast in microwaves. Products that are interesting and innovative also can be seen. Some of them may be used to increase the amount of glucose in the blood, and they are viewed as an alternative to drugs. Most fruits and vegetables are grown on healthy soil because it has a drastic effect on the overall quality of the product. Fresh ingredients should be mostly preferred because vitamins are an essential part of this particular diet. Overall, production methods have changed and have been modernized over the years, and there is a need for further improvement.

Techniques

There are always new techniques for this diet that are being developed all the time. Some tips can be used by individuals during preparation and cooking to make the process much more comfortable. It is suggested that people should try different products because some of them may become incredibly stale, and it is known that people view taste as one of the most critical aspects. Flavorings can be used as a way to address this problem, but it is essential to choose the products that are appropriate for the diet plan. The intake of sodium should be reduced for those that suffer from this condition. It is also suggested that people that are affected by diabetes eat at home because it is hard to measure the ingredients in restaurant meals. Most of them contain surprising amounts of sodium. They are also often high in fats and calories. Cooking at home allows one to have better control of ingredients. It is imperative to avoid foods that are known to contain an increased amount of sodium, and some alternatives are available. Dried basil, cinnamon, cumin, and other spices may be used to flavor foods. Herbs are also recommended in most cases.

Artificial ingredients should not be used most of the time because it is known that some of them are not healthy. Fresh dill and parsley are especially useful and significantly improve the taste of most dishes. Also, ingredients should always be checked because some of them are mislabelled. Some tips may help one to maintain the regime and do not forget about the diet. It is also interesting that numerous websites sell foods that are related to diabetes, and some of them are supported by organizations. Online sales and wrongful advertisement are used to aim at customers that may look for cheaper options, but it is necessary to consider the fact that it is better to purchase products from trusted sources. This market is developing at an incredibly fast pace because of the popularisation of online purchases. Also, sections that are aimed at people who suffer from this condition are present in most supermarkets, and a broad range of products are offered. Overall, many techniques can be used. Are they quite innovative?

Resources

The products that are a part of this diet have also changed over the years. People prefer the ones that are easy and fast to cook, and the food industry acknowledges this fact. The products have become much tastier than they used to be, and they are healthier thanks to the advancement of methods of production. Also, the ones that contain gluten are generally avoided because of a recent discovery of dangerous aspects of this protein. Most people understand the importance of this diet, and they make the process of product selection very seriously. Web sites with reviews also have an immense influence on the behavior of buyers. There are guidelines for the production of such foods that should be followed. Overall, customers pay more attention to the quality and ingredients of the products before making a purchase, then they used to, and some companies use it to their advantage. This aspect is used as a core of promotion and advertisement.

The enterprises that are producing products that were not safe have understood that the population had a better understanding of this issue and started to make changes to the ingredients. They are versions of the products that are lower in sugar or those that a completely sugar-free. Some of them are quite expensive, and most individuals cannot afford them. Many organizations also suggest limiting the consumption of these products because they are hard to regulate. Some of them are quite useful and healthy, but they should be selected wisely. It must be said that an increase in demand has played a vital role. It is also paramount that such foods are also available in most countries all over the world. However, there are still some issues that are present and should be addressed because diabetes is a severe disease and global threat.

Future trends

Technology

The introduction of new technologies is going to be crucial for diabetes management. Smartphones are nearly everywhere and help individuals not to forget about their diet. However, it can be improved even further. Smartwatches can be used as one of the examples. The fact that they are always on the hand of a person is crucial. Such devices can provide a broad range of services that are associated with diabetes diet in addition to notifications. Google Glass is also a revolutionary technology that could help to address the current problems of diabetes diet management. Overall, the possibilities are limitless. Also, it is imperative to consider the fact that the effect of this diet should always be observed. Modern technologies can be used to address this problem. Also, it may be much more comfortable with the introduction of new devices and gadgets.

This is a massive industry because the number of people that suffer from this condition is astounding, and scientists are always looking for new ways in which current issues that are present can be addressed. Also, several products will likely be discovered that would revolutionize this particular diet. The food industry is developing at a breakneck pace, and the overall goal is to satisfy the needs of customers. There is a need for new technologies that would help fix current problems that are associated with this diet. Free tools should be promoted because a study has indicated that they were met with approval and were viewed as generally helpful (Peterson, 2014).

Some of these applications can record food habits, and it is beneficial (Arsand, Tatara, Ostengen, & Hartvigsen, 2010). An app that would scan a barcode and show information about the ingredients of a product would be innovative and may help millions of people that are on this diet. It is necessary to note that numerous technologies have been introduced to keep track of calories (Illner et al., 2012). The fact that they are so easy to use is crucial. The process of the evaluation is incredibly fast, and it cannot be overlooked. The development of diet smartphone applications was especially critical, and they are becoming increasingly popular each year.

They help with shopping and can be configured according to the preferences of the user. Numerous applications that come with a range of services can be downloaded and installed for free, and there are paid alternatives that also have their advantages. The memo feature is especially critical because many individuals struggle with remembering that they are on a diet. Notifications to take a meal are also quite useful and liked by users. The fact that all the information about the food can be stored and viewed later should not be overlooked because it is necessary to keep track of the progress to make sure that the process is successful. The effectiveness of such applications should not be disregarded, and health care systems should consider the implementation of such software as a part of the treatment of this disease. Some systems can automatically transfer the necessary data about the consumption of food to professionals, and they can monitor the process (Cruz-Cunha, M., & Moreira, 2011). However, it should be said that some of them have issues with usability because access to wireless transmission is necessary. Overall, numerous possibilities for the development of new technologies are present, and they would help to solve current issues.

Social Influences

Social interactions have an immense impact on the behavior of people that follow the diet regiment. Mass media is one of the reasons that weight loss is viewed by many as a necessary part of the diet. Images and pictures that are displayed on the screen are considered to be normal, and anything that slightly differs is viewed as not attractive. It is necessary to address the fact that women are affected by this problem the most because it is hard to meet the standards. After all, they are set very high. Recent research has shown that there is a connection between this disease and obesity, and aspects that influence dietary choices should be studied (Anders & Schroeter, 2015). It could lead to an improvement in understanding of the necessity of following dietary guidelines. It is crucial to note that weight loss is considered one of the most critical factors because it is necessary to limit the possibility of the development of other severe conditions and comorbidities are especially dangerous. It is also essential to understand that such diets have a significant influence on the mood of a person.

Eating healthier often reflects positively on the overall behavior, and individuals feel better. However, it should be said that some may feel stressed about depressed because they cannot consume the food that they like. Some options on the market help to address this issue. There are alternatives to such foods that are quite similar, and it would be hard to tell the difference between their tastes. It is necessary to take measurements during each meal, and it may cause some discomfort for individuals, especially if they are surrounded by others. However, it is crucial to understand that this condition is quite severe, and full support should be offered to people that suffer from it. The level of satiety is crucial because it is essential for an individual to feel less hungry with reduced consumption of calories, and the diabetes diet is quite efficient from this point of view (Jönsson, Granfeldt, Lindeberg, & Hallberg, 2013). It is also paramount that people on this diet are often anxious about the fact that there is a need to limit certain foods. However, it can be an excellent way to try out different products that have incredible flavors. Overall, it is paramount to consider that the behavior of the people that are affected by this disease is often influenced by the opinions of others, and it has an enormous impact on the diet.

Conclusion

In conclusion, numerous factors make this diet much more different from others. It is crucial to note that it is a necessity for some individuals, and it is accompanied by a need for lifestyle changes. Some products on this market can be used to help to address the issue of counting calories and other factors. It is imperative to understand that the effectiveness of the diet differs, and it should be individualized. Preferences of a person should also be taken into account (Deed et al., 2015). The most significant aspect that affects this diet is the nature of this condition, and it affects the product line-up. Overall, the goal of this diet is to provide an individual with the daily amount of vitamins without affecting sugar levels. It is essential to say that there is no optimal diet for the treatment of this disease, and it should be individual for all the patients (Krebs & Parry-Strong, 2013).

The importance of self-management should not be disregarded, and it can be promoted with personal and online interactions with professionals. The governments should focus on these issues and take necessary measures to educate the population about this condition and the significance of this regiment. However, it should be said that the diet dramatically differs in most regions of the world because of such factors as social class. It is caused by the fact that some products are costly, and many individuals prefer alternatives that are much cheaper (Pozzilli & Fallucca, 2014). Some issues that are associated with knowledge about management of this condition are currently present, and it is paramount to provide education to make sure that the population has an understanding of this problem. Nevertheless, new technologies are always being developed, and some of them would be able to address this fact.

References

Anders, S., & Schroeter, C. (2015). Diabetes, diet-health behavior, and obesity. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 6(1), 1-8.

Arsand, E., Tatara, N., Ostengen, G., & Hartvigsen, G. (2010). Mobile phone-based self-management tools for type 2 diabetes: the few touch application. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 4(2), 328-336.

Barnard, N., Cohen, J., Jenkins, D., Turner-McGrievy, G., Gloede, L., Green, A., & Ferdowsian, H. (2009). A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), 1588S-1596S.

Cozma, A., Sievenpiper, J., de Souza, R., Chiavaroli, L., Ha, V., Wang, D.,…Jenkins, D. (2012). Effect of fructose on glycemic control in diabetes. Diabetes Care, 35(7), 1611-1620.

Cruz-Cunha, M., & Moreira, F. (2011). Handbook of research on mobility and computing. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

Deed, G., Barlow, J., Kawol, D., Kilov, G., Sharma, A., & Hwa, L. Y. (2015). Diet and diabetes. Australian Family Physician, 44(5), 288-292.

Evangelista, L., Heber, D., Li, Z., Bowerman, S., Hamilton, M., & Fonarow, G. (2009). Reduced body weight and adiposity with a high-protein diet improves functional status, lipid profiles, glycemic control, and quality of life in patients with heart failure. The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 24(3), 207-215.

Illner, A., Freisling, H., Boeing, H., Huybrechts, I., Crispim, S., & Slimani, N. (2012). Review and evaluation of innovative technologies for measuring diet in nutritional epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology, 41(4), 1187-1203.

Jönsson, T., Granfeldt, Y., Lindeberg, S., & Hallberg, A. (2013). Subjective satiety and other experiences of a paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. Nutrition Journal, 12(1), 105.

Kavookjian, J., Berger, B., Grimley, D., Villaume, W., Anderson, H., & Barker, K. (2005). Patient decision making: Strategies for diabetes diet adherence intervention. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 1(3), 389-407.

Krebs, M., & Parry-Strong, A. (2013). Is There an Optimal Diet for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes? British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, 13(2), 60-66.

Marsh, K., Barclay, A., Colagiuri, S., & Brand-Miller, J. (2011). Glycemic index and glycemic load of carbohydrates in the diabetes diet. Current Diabetes Reports, 11(2), 120-127.

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Nuttall, F., Schweim, K., Hoover, H., & Gannon, M. (2007). Effect of the LoBAG30 diet on blood glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes. BJN, 99(3), 511-519.

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Peterson, A. (2014). Improving type 1 diabetes management with mobile tools: a systematic eview. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 8(4), 859-864.

Polak, R., Dill, D., Abrahamson, M., Pojednic, R., & Phillips, E. (2014). Innovation in diabetes care: improving consumption of healthy food through a “chef coaching” program: a case report. Global Adv Health Med, 3(6), 42-48.

Pozzilli, P., & Fallucca, F. (2014). Diet and diabetes: a cornerstone for therapy. Diabetes/Metabolism: Research and Reviews (Elect), 30(1), 1-3.

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Sawyer, SL., & Gale, M. (2009). Diet, delusion and diabetes. Diabetologia, 52(1), 1-7.

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