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The history of international relations is extensively filled with international incidents and the negotiations aimed at the regulation of these incidents. Originally, the communication and negotiation techniques, which were used during these regulations are various, as the result of the negotiations, and sometimes the destiny of the world and peace depended on them. The aim of this paper is to analyze the well known incidents and the ways of negotiating them.
Types of Communication Tactics
The types, which are generally used during communication and negotiations are different. These are threats, ultimatums, bullying, blocking, compromising, mutual concessions etc. The range of the tactics depends on the experience of the negotiators, and the aims, which are required to achieve.
The techniques, which were used during the Caribbean Missile Crisis, ranged from threats and ultimatums up to mutual concessions. Taking into consideration the fact that the sides of the negotiations possessed various data about each other, these techniques were combined. When the USA got to know about the Soviet Missiles on Cuba, the tactics for the negotiations mainly had threat features. When the Soviet Union revealed the fact of US missiles in Turkey, the USA had nothing to do but to compromise, and the mutual agreement was achieved. The main points of this ultimatum were the simultaneous dismantling of the missile systems and withdrawal of Soviet troops from Cuba.
As for the negotiations over the situation in Iraq, it should be emphasized that all the power levers were in the hands of the USA, consequently all the tactics were used, which presuppose the negotiations from the position of power: bullying, threat, blocking, embargo.
Bullying in Negotiations
Bullying, is the type of aggressive negotiations and aggressive behavior, when one of the negotiators feels prevalence over the other (others). Originally, it may be used only if the prevalence is real, and the opponents do not know of the drawbacks and weak points of the party, which resorts to bullying.
The example of bullying may be explained on the example of the USA and Iraq: the latter could not contrast anything against American complaints on the matters of aggression in the Middle East. The US party knew it perfectly, and could afford to resort to bullying, blocking and direct threats of use of force, in spite of the fact that the threat of use of force is forbidden by the UN Charter.
Improper application of the bullying tactics in 1960s made the USA make inappropriate concession, when the US party had to agree to dismantle the missiles in Turkey. Originally, this decision was not suitable for the USA, nevertheless, the world was on the edge of a nuclear war, thus, both parties had to compromise, sacrificing their own interests.
The strategies, which were generally used during the conflicts depend on the information, which part possesses about its opponent, and the information, which opponent might know about the party. The example of SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talk) reveals the concept of mutual concession, when both parties are eager to sacrifice their interests. Nevertheless, these negotiations were featured with the wish not to make more concessions than the opposite party will make.
Finally, it should be emphasized that the negotiation and communication techniques are used as the powerful diplomatic tools and achievement of the international goals and satisfying the national interests.