Multimedia instructions present one of the modern ways through which instructional research and practice are presented. Instructional media is used as means of delivering specific instructions while multimedia refers to the ability of modern computers to provide real-time data of all existing media and sensory modes of instruction to learners (Ackerman, 1992, pp 598-614).
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This is the principle where words and graphics are used rather than words alone; it proves very beneficial to learners who seem to have less experience within lessons. The use of text and graphics presentations could be utilized to provide encouragement to learners hence engaging them in active learning through actual connections between pictures and text with mental orientations.
Several graphics could be used to enhance learning process, these include; decorative representing aesthetic appeal which ultimately does not have the power to enhance messages conveyed through the lessons. Then there is the representational graphics which are used for the purposes of illustrating appearances portrayed by single elements (André et al, 1994, pp 415-448).
The other one is relational graphics which summarizes the relationships presented by portraying links between articles as quantitative relationships, it’s often represented in terms of line graphs. Organizational graphics reveals the qualitative relationship amongst elements like the nature and type of pumps having their own definitions and examples.
Transformational graphics shows explicit illustrations representing change occurrences of an object over specific duration of time, and then finally there is interpretive graphics which portrays intangible elements as reality and concrete giving indivisible relationships, a good example could be airflow (Ackerman,1992, pp 598-614).
This represents the process where words are aligned towards corresponding graphics, the representation of text and graphics are done in an integrated manner instead of giving the same information in separate environments. The process is known to have the ability of reducing the amount of time the learner requires to find and exploit information, hence reduces cognitive load.
The whole process of presentation involves narration which could be done through on-screen words which accompanies the graphics being referred and also pop-up messages which reduces length of messages presented. Several violations occur during the use of contiguity, in the scrolling window, the graphics and related text are often separated and dimmed in the process of scrolling down the screen.
The feedbacks are often displayed on separate screen from the topic question also the distinctions separating text and graphics into different windows are sometimes confusing. All the directive instructions for the practice are often placed on different screens where they are to be followed (Ackerman,1992, pp 598-614).
The spoken words should always be made to correspond to the graphics and the presentations made close to each other. The required graphics and accompanied speech should be presented at the same time.
This ensures that cognitive load is tremendously reduced hence improving retention time since each animation and graphics are made to appear on the screen at the same time. Research reveals that people learn best when words describing an element are presented at the same time as the illustrations provided (Anderson and Gluck, 2001).
This presents the kind of guidelines required for e-learning navigation which enables learners have control over pacing. In this case there is presentation on the nature of learner controlled environment as well as program controlled environment.
Several controls could be applied by the learner in their controlled environment, these include; content sequencing, pacing and access to learning support (American Society for Training and Development, 2001).
|The course and lessons offered descriptions given in left-hand frame, requires pulling down of window||The learners should be given chance of selecting specific lessons and topics which are accommodated within the lesson||Pulling down menus contained in windows|
|The necessary links are placed within the teaching curriculum||Learners should be allowed to access contents provided by other sites from the internet||The links provided guides towards definitions and exercises given|
|Pop-ups||These should provide instant additional information, making it easier for the learner to use one screen||Rollover functionality, this makes it easier to click on the screen icon making small window appear with detailed explanation on its functions|
|Buttons making it possible for forward, backward activation then quit options||Allow control over spacing within the lessons providing standard features of common learning , modernized computerized buttons allow easy navigation||Buttons providing audio controls for easy navigation|
|Guided movements||Overviews of course resources available from the main menu screen||Available in lessons offering sophisticated learner control, including game type interfaces having multiple paths and interface options|
The learner satisfaction lies in their ability to adopt learner control. This incorporates what is known as calibration accuracy which links learner’s ability and confidence. Good instructions lead to accurate estimates of the knowledge making it possible for appropriate instructions during decision making process. Best accuracies could be made after responses from the test questions (Bandura, 1997).
Several principles are applied in learner control, these include; giving experienced learners the control which enables them to use design options in improving learner calibration. This ensures that learners are armed with appropriate knowledge and necessary skills; also this ensures application of advanced lessons from modernized curriculum which ultimately ensures low level of complexity and good meta-cognitive skills.
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The second principle tends to set navigational controls with the ability to direct important instructional events which are considered default. This enables learners to view several screens helping them towards achieving high level scores on performance testing (Bandura, 1997).
The third principle focuses on what is referred to as personalized instructions which tends to adjust the lessons based on learner responses it relies on what is referred to as adaptive control which could be represented in four formats which include; static adaptive branching which guides learners towards different lessons, there is the dynamic branching which is responsible for adjusting instructional elements with the help of available assessment.
Then there is the adaptive process used to grant all learners the same level of advice and finally shared control which helps in selecting appropriate decisions. The fourth principle is used to give pacing control whereby learning is divided into small segments (Bandura, 1997).
The high learning control is used when it is necessary to provide goal oriented information which is not focused towards building skills. It could also be applied in case of non-interdependent topics and also when the course material used reaches the end of series equivalent of workers having appropriate knowledge base.
This is used in presenting words in the form of audio narration rather than what is referred to as on-screen text. This principle is applied whenever the use of audio is feasible presenting some significant learning proceedings. The principle avoids the creation of internet courses where words are all spoken.
Questions requiring support are well supported are well supported on the screen, this principle is found applicable in cases where materials used are found to be complex and at the same time requires rapid and continuous presentation (Anderson and Gluck, 2001).
This principle is used in explaining visuals with words as well as audio. Printed text is not required since it is considered to overload what is known as the visual channel, this is considered since research shows that most people learn better with alternating graphics and audio. However, the basic of the redundancy principle lies in the idea of reducing the work load within the common channels.
The first principle under this requires no addition of on-screen text to the narrations. The second principle considers addition of on-screen texts to important situations and activities only.
The best example is where there is lack of pictorial presentation which presents learners with sequential graphical presentations hence making-up for both spoken and written words. Research shows that concurrent audio and text presentations appear more effective than when it is presented in the form of text alone (Anderson and Gluck, 2001).
This principle refers to the process of adding interesting material to already written text. These materials range from dramatic stories, pictures and background music which at times could be detrimental towards learning process. Natural law states that human beings have limited working mental capacity (Anderson and Gluck, 2001).
This principle uses conversational style and utilizes visual senses, the presence of conversational partner is very crucial for this principle to be accomplished. This principle requires the use of formal language in the process of conveying importance attached to the materials used and has often proved to be one if the ineffective methods of relating information.
Research reveals that engaging learners in a conversational mood tends to encourage learners in the process of engaging with material and close sense of cognitive process resulting in better placed results. Examples provided include the use of slang words such as “Yo” instead of you and “Dude” which could easily distract the learner from the main content (Anderson and Gluck, 2001).
Segmenting and Pre-training
This principle provides names and clear aspects of key concepts which should be used within preceding lessons. The principle calls for good management of available segments brought about by dividing available lessons into considerable segments. The principle uses continue button which enables learners to process information appropriately and in a sequential manner.
On the other hand pre-training principle presents names and characteristics of crucial aspects before commencement of lessons. Giving learners short quizzes for the purposes of familiarizing themselves with essential characteristics and major concepts could assist learners in managing complex problems by shortening the processes followed in undergoing main lessons (Atkinson, 2002, pp 416-427).
Multimedia principles have great impact on learners’ performance since they dictate on the level of corporate reputation. The principles also determine the ability of an institution to attract both consumers and talented employees. However, there is a possibility that those in the management team could act in a manner that reduces Institutions corporate reputation.
Management qualities as well as the quality of learning and the manner of presentation remain one of the important factors which determine duration of viability of the institution. All the drivers of excellent knowledge in institutions are basically linked to the extent on which tutors utilize the necessary tools on public relations considering both social and environmental sectors.
Ackerman, P. L. (1992). Predicting individual differences in complex skill acquisition: Dynamics of ability determinants. Journal of Applied Psychology, (77), 598–614.
American Society for Training and Development (2001). E-Learning: If you build it, will They come? Alexandria VA: ASTD.
Anderson, J.R., & Gluck, K. (2001). What role do cognitive architectures play in Intelligent tutoring systems. In D. Klahr & S. Carver (Eds.) Cognition and instruction: 25 years of progress (pp. 227-262). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
André, E., Rist, T., & Müller, J. (1999). Employing AI methods to control the behavior of animated interface agents. Applied Artificial Intelligence, (13), 415-448
Atkinson, R. K. (2002). Optimizing learning from examples using animated pedagogical agents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 416-427.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.