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In the recent past, tremendous changes in the business environment have occasioned employee mobility in an unprecedented manner. This can be attributed to a number of factors. For example, economic globalization has availed limitless and very attractive opportunities for employees with the intention of optimizing their career goals and objectives within the shortest time possible.
In view of the danger of losing their most prized asset (human resource), employers have devised strategies geared towards motivating and encouraging employees to retain their current jobs in the organization. This report provides a literature review on employee retention. In order to achieve this goal, the research paper considers conceptual models and systems under utilization by companies and organizations.
Considering the massive losses experienced by organizations, Fitz-ens (1997, p. 3) emphasizes the need for organizations to embrace strategies and models that would motivate employees. According to Howart (2010, p. 2), underpayment and strained relationship with the management team coupled with unclear responsibilities and poor working conditions have been cited as some of the factors that make employees to consider leaving their jobs.
To this end, an array of models has been put in practice by many organizations with mixed success rates. Using the Herzberg theory, Quaero Company embarked on improvement of its communication system and the development of flexible work schedules thereby resulting in retention of its talented and experienced employees in the face of increasing competition in the industry (Mitchelman, 2003, para. 15).
Provision of fairness and proper climate, as stipulated in the equity theory, is imperative in ensuring that employees realize their optimal potential as a requirement particularly when applying the Maslow hierarchy concept in the United States (Kreitner & Kinicki, 1998, p. 54).
The realization of the importance of human resources based on the training and support programs offered to them is crucial in improving organizational performance. The desire to apply integrative models in enhancing the commitment and motivation in the workforce is rife owing to changing trends in the business climate (Meyer et al 2004, p. 995).
Kreitner and Kinicki (1998, p. 67) and Meyer et al (2004, p. 998) have asserted the importance of understanding the root causes of discontent in the workforce to help in the design of integrative and involving retention strategies. Furthermore, visionary leadership and the incorporation of motivation strategies which take into consideration the contribution of employees should guide the organizations’ goals (Sheridan 1992, p. 1031).
Employee retention connection model
The model has influenced the banking and manufacturing sectors in coming up with retention strategies. There is need to ensure organization culture is aligned with the expectations of the employees particularly when taking into account the potential and impact of experienced employees on organizational performance.
Studies conducted among technological firms have reinforced the notion that rewards and contribution are largely crucial in retaining employees and improving relations with the employers. In line with their ambitions, the ERC model provides the best opportunity for employees to go up the ladder while bolstering their competency and relevance in offering solutions to challenges in the organization (Competittive Advantage Consultants, 2003, para. 8).
Integrated retention System
Inducements and offering of career improvement opportunities in tandem with the integrated retention system model has contributed to better perceptions of employees with regard to their current job. On the other hand, Kreitner and Kinicki (1998, p. 47) noted that assessing the organizational climate as espoused by the Herzberg theory is important in improving the cultural practices in the long term.
The fact that systematic assessment provides the best foundation to deduce the problems and loopholes while informing the designing of stimulants in the organization makes it an essential component. In line with the model, utilization of available evidence coupled with incorporation of contemporary business practices in training and capacity buildings of employees in industries bolsters and strengthens the overall capacity of employees (Elisa, Zhao & Kay, 2009, p. 437).
In addition, employees’ retention is improved through concerted efforts aimed at rewarding and offering career development to employees . This ensures that productivity is maintained at its peak. Tailor- made rewarding schemes for college graduates in industrial firms while providing them with the Maslow needs is instrumental in retention and helping them conform to the cultural practices in the organization.
The application of the ERC model in technology and service sector has not only placed them ahead of the other sectors but also provided benchmarks upon which the private sectors base their performance (Dessler 2008, p. 45). Nonetheless, failure to address and make provisions for hiccups and constraints in the system may prove costly (Michelman 2003, para. 6).
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This is especially the case when taking into consideration the dynamics of the business environment (Competitive Advantage Consultants, 2003, para. 6). The integrated system of employee retention has proved effective and relevant mainly due to its recognition of employees’ retention as an integral component for the firm to succeed. However, its reliance on performance and rewards may prove ineffective in situations where the employees take time to adjust to the work environment
The ERC model provides managers and organizations with a crucial tool through which they can build retention programs for their employees. The fact that the model and the integrated system for employee retention makes provisions for tailor- made assessment and rewarding schemes makes it an effective employee retention tool. Majority of technological and service industries have embraced the model and the integrated system due to an increment in the number of opportunities available to the employees.
Competitive Advantage Consultants, 2003, ERC’s Retention Model. Web.
Dessler, G., 2008, Human Resource Management. 11th International Edition. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.
Elisa, M., Zhao, J. & Kay, C. 2009. An exploratory study of US lodging properties’ organizational practices on employee turnover and retention. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp.437 – 458.
Fitz-ens, J., 1997, The ROI of human capital: measuring the economic value of Employee performance. Broadway, New York: American Management Association.
Howart, W., 2010, Employee retention. A discussion model. Web.
Kreitner, R. & Kinicki, A., 1998, Organizational behavior.4th Ed. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Meyer, J., Becker, P., Thomas, E. & Vandenberghe, C. 2004. Employee Commitment and Motivation: A Conceptual Analysis and Integrative Model. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 89, No. 6, pp. 991-1007.
Michelman, P., 2003, Your new core strategy: Employee retention. Web.
Sheridan, J. 1992. Organizational culture and employee retention. Academy of management journal, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 1036-1056.