This paper seeks to explore the effects of the intensity of exercises on the molecular responses of the body. In order to accomplish these objectives, critical reviews on past research studies were conducted in order to determine how the fats, sugars and mitochondria molecular composition and creation responds to the exercise intensity. As such, it was determined the intense exercises reduce the blood sugar and fats in the body. In addition, it encourages the production of the AMP signal, which helps to create more mitochondria in the body.
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It has been evidently discovered and determined that the intensity of the physical exercises conducted on the human body affects the manner in which the body’s molecular structure and content respond to the exercise (Ainsworth 2000). As such, the high intensity and low-intensity training trigger different molecular responses from the body. As such, most of the people in the modern world prefer the use of High-Intensity Interval training to increase and accelerate their aerobic body fitness over a short period of time. Importantly, the use of this aspect has been applied to treat lifestyle disorders such as obesity and keep the sugar levels in control (Alberti, Zimmet & Shaw 2006).
As such, the understanding of how exercise intensity affects the molecular response in the body can be used effectively to keep the body fit and healthy. In fact, this understanding can be used to reduce the uptake of drugs and prescriptions in case the natural exercises are well conducted. In this light, therefore, this paper seeks to provide crucial information about the intensity of exercise from a disease control perspective. Indeed, it will focus on how patients should measure the intensity of their exercise, the effect of the exercise intensity on blood sugar level, fats and mitochondria. Importantly, the paper will touch some of the crucial aspects that deal with body activity and responsiveness. In this case, it is evident that the health of the body is not only confined to the existence of diseases but also the activeness portrayed during daily activities. As such, activeness and enthusiasm determine the general productivity of the body when conducting daily chores.
This paper sought to review articles in order to determine the effect of exercise intensity on the molecular responses. The literature was selected on the basis of various themes of the study, including the responses of the molecules such as fats and sugars. In addition, the articles included in the study had a special interest in a medical orientation such as diabetes and obesity. As such, the relevance of the study was the major determinant factors during the selection. In-depth analysis was used to make the required findings as per the research question.
Results of the Research from Literature Review
Measuring Exercise Intensity
Since this paper seeks to understand the effect of exercise intensity on the response of the body molecules, the measurement and assessment of the exercise intensity are important. This is quite crucial when the persons with complication such as diabetes and obesity want to assess the intensity of their exercise and decide on whether to stop, increase or regulate the intensity of their exercises.
Using the Heart rate
The human body is equipped with ingrained and natural mechanisms that can help to identify the intensity of the exercise that a person is conducting (Ballor & Wilterdink 1990). The human heart has a tendency to increase the beats in accordance with the intensity of the exercises conducted. As such, one can monitor their intensity by determining the beats per minute during the exercising venture. An approximate target heart rate (THR) of a human heart is estimated at about two hundred and twenty beats per minute less the person’s age (Carr & Utzschneider 2004). In order to ensure that the required rate is maintained, one should test his or her pulse using a physical count.
In this case, the first three fingers are put on the hollow part below the thumb of the other hand (Clasey 1997). Since the artery lies just below the skin, the pulses can be easily counted to determine the rate of the heartbeat. The pulses are counted in terms of about 15 seconds, and then the value is multiplied by four to determine the rate per minute. As such, the rate should be compared to the estimated Target Heart Rate to decide on whether the intensity of the exercise is suitable or not (Dempster & Aitkens 1995).
For this method, if one can talk and sing without guzzling air, then it is evident that he or she is conducting the exercises of low intensity. If the person can talk with comfort, but they cannot sing at all, then it is concluded that the exercises are of medium intensity (Despres & Bouchard 1984). Lastly, if one can hardly talk or sing, it is concluded that they are taking intense and vigorous activities. However, it is important to understand that there are other factors that may cause a lack of comfortable talking and singing, although the exercises are not necessarily vigorous in nature. However, it is a good indication that the exercises are either suitable or not according to all those factors when combined.
Exhaustion Rating Scale
This method of measuring the intensity of the exercises is based on using the physical responses which can be used to tell the vigorousness of the venture. For example, moderate exercise can lead to various responses in physical complexion. Such responses include a faster rate of heartbeat, increase breathing, a slight rise in the temperature, as well as the swelling of the hands and the feet. In addition, the medium exercise can cause mild perspiration or sweating and slight aches of the muscles after the exercise. These indicate that the activities of the exercises are of medium intensity.
As such, the indications of the medium rate of exercises can be used to determine the low and high-intensity activities (Jakicic & Donnelly 1995). Importantly, although this stipulation can be seen as quite irrelevant to the core discussion of how different molecules respond to the exercising intensity, it is important to disclose them, especially because the paper seeks to address the people living with complications such as diabetes. In this case, they can easily determine their Target Hear Rate and then measure their heartbeat to ensure the safety of the exercises. As such, this assessment of the intensity of the exercises will be very crucial during our subsequent discussion and the provision of recommendations to such patients. In that regard, it will enable the potential users of this review to direct the molecular knowledge towards attaining a better life when it comes to health issues and natural diagnosis.
Effect of Exercise Intensity on Sugar
Burning Sugar According to Exercise Intensity
Blood sugar levels have evoked critical interests in the modern world, bearing in mind the prevalence of diabetes. As such, the intensity of exercises triggers a response from the sugar molecules in the body. Indeed, different intensities of exercises, as measured using the criteria that have been presented above, lead to different responses from sugar molecules. However, in order to understand the effect of exercise intensity on the sugar molecules, one must explore how the body operates in its functionalities. Basically, the muscles can be viewed as the body’s engine that burns sugar to get energy in order to use it during movement.
From a technical point of view, an engine requires fuel in order to facilitate the movement and execution of its functions. As such, the muscles of the body need fuel in order to burn and generate energy. This energy is tapped by the muscles to enable the entire body to move. The movement required determines the amount of fuel which is burnt to facilitate the necessary torque.
As such, when the body needs to move fast, the muscles have to burn more sugars in order to release the required energy (Katzmarzyk & Church 2004). In that regard, therefore, it is evident that this understanding can assist the patients with diabetes to manage their sugar levels during training by applying different intensities of the exercises at a given time. This implies that a human being can reduce blood sugar levels by engaging in High-Intensity Interval Exercises (HIIE) (Kohl & Blair 1988). As such, the availability of oxygen leads to increased burning of sugar levels. As a result, the energy required is available to the muscles.
Understandably, insulin is used to control the sugar levels and maintain an optimum level that can facilitate the smooth operation of the body functionalities. As such, the walls of the muscles have unique type of cells which resemble doors. These cells are made to allow the entry of glucose in the main bloodstreams, which later relay the energy to the muscles. They play the role of insulin perfectly by allowing the opening of these doors. In this case, the exercises enable the insulin to operate in a better way as far as the entry of glucose in the muscles in concerned (Gaesser & Rich 1984). As such, exercise ensure that muscles swing so that more glucose enters into the muscles to burn and provide energy for the body. However, it is important to notice that when the exercises become more intense, and the intervals are very close, more glucose finds its way into the muscles for the provision of energy (Giannopoulou 2005).
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This implies that prolonged intense exercises can easily lead to a vast reduction of the glucose levels due to the continued burning of the sugars. This becomes a very important point when it comes to diabetes patients. The patient must understand their sugar levels before engaging in the activities in order to know whether the results are desirable. If the blood sugar is high, the prolonged intense exercises can assist in the reduction of the sugars in the bloodstream. However, if the levels are essentially low, it is important to engage in low-intensity exercises that do not lead to the overutilization of the blood sugar (Grediagin & Cody 1995). Otherwise, this may lead to a fatal condition of diabetes that can possibly cause death. With this understanding, however, it is easy to maintain blood glucose levels by regulating the intensity of exercises. Indeed, the intensity of the exercises can be measured using the information provided in the second paragraph of this paper.
Besides the reduction of glucose during the exercises, it is important to understand that the glucose levels continue to fall even after the exercises are over. This eventuality is based on the fact that the sugar that was used during the exercise requires replacement in order for the muscles to operate and function in normality (Grundy & Brewer 2004). On the other hand, the exercises might lead to increased glucose levels even after the body rests (Haskell & Lee 2007).
This is caused by the action of the liver because the intense exercise forces it to release high amounts of glucose than the body requires in the normal circumstances. Indeed, the excessive production of glucose leads to a situation in which the body has more glucose than it can burn and use. This leads to the increment of blood sugar levels in the body. With this information, it is evident that the people living with diabetes must be extremely careful when it comes to exercises (Hetzler & Seip 1991). In this regard, and according to this analysis, it is advisable to avoid intense activities if the person is suffering from any type of diabetes. This is based on the fact that intense activities seem to cause a continued reduction in the blood sugar levels or an increment of the glucose despite stopping the exercises (Imbeault & Pierre 1997). The controlled and less intense activities such as jogging can help to avoid the fluctuation of sugar levels that can easily lead to death or fatal passing out.
Effect of Exercise Intensity on Fats
The control of body fat molecules is an area of crucial concern bearing in mind that people seek to lose weight in order to stabilize their metabolic functions (Irwin & Yasui 2003. As such, the response of fatty molecules to exercise is an important point of discussion in this paper. In essentiality, this discussion will be framed in the perspective of people who wish to handle fat-related disorder. Indeed, it gives particular interests to conditions such as the metabolic syndrome. From a basic point of view, the body burns both fats and glucose to generate energy in the body and use it for movement (Facchini, Hua, Abbasi & Reaven 2008).
Indeed, the previous explanation in the glucose levels stated that the muscles can be likened to engines that breakdown the fuels to produce energy for the sake of motion. Just as it was indicated in the previous paragraph, high intensity exercise demands the more energy and provides a lot of oxygen for the burning of those fats (Fagard 2001). As a result, the high intensity fats lead to increased breakdown of fats such that the levels of the fats in the body reduce drastically.
This is the reason as to why we have many people participating in the Slim-Possible programs. The high intense activities are used to increase the breakdown and the burning of the fat molecules that subsequently reduce the weight of the participant (Despres & Lemieux 2000. Indeed, this is one the ways in which the specialists treat the metabolic syndrome which is caused by old age and inactivity (Donnelly & Hill 2003). As a result of high intensity practice, the fats found in the adnominal visceral are broken down to restore activeness in the patients’ body.
Effect of High Intensity Training on the Molecular Production of Mitochondria
The effect of exercise intensity on the mitochondria is a very crucial concern when it comes to molecular response to exercise vigorousness. In this regard, different intensities of the exercise cause diverse responses of the mitochondria. Evidently, it has been indicated that the intensity of exercises can lead to the loss or acquisition of the mitochondria. In this case, the inactiveness of the muscles leads to decline of the mitochondria in the body. This later causes the creation of radical cells that can cause the death of other cells. As such, the body needs to use the muscles and activate the molecular production of mitochondria components.
In fact, when it comes to people with Type II diabetes, it has been discovered that their muscles are affected by defects of the mitochondria. This condition is related to the fact that people who suffer from Type II diabetes undergo reduced aerobic capability and activities. As such, the insulin deficiency in the mitochondria hinders the organelle’s biogenesis and creation. As such, the reduced muscle activity leads to molecular response that prevents the development of new mitochondria in the body. In some instances, the reduced insulin and activities of the muscles can cause malfunction process of creating mitochondria. As a result, the poor biogenesis put the patients under the threat of contracting the metabolic syndrome and other complication that might affect the health of the person.
Indeed, it is therefore evident that the intensity of the exercises conducted by an individual triggers a molecular response that can either accelerate the production of mitochondria or inhibit their creation. In particular, increased metabolic exercises enable the normal production of insulin and the circulation of glucose in the muscles. As a result of this molecular response, the body is capable of producing more mitochondria. Indeed, the response also ensures that the biogenesis of the mitochondria is not defective to cause the malfunction of the mitochondria. On the other hand, the low intensity of the exercises can only facilitate insignificant development and production of the mitochondria. As such, the creation might not be deemed as deficient but the breakdown of glucose is relatively lower than the people who engage in active exercise.
In details, the production of new mitochondria can be explained from the molecular and exercise intensity perspective. In this case, it has been indicated that the capability of the muscles to burn glucose for ATP determine the creation of mitochondria. Om his case, it has been discovered that when the muscles engage in high intensive exercises the molecular component of the body makes the body to produce a signal with low energy called the AMP (Lee & Kuk 2005).
This signal accumulates over time in the body as the exercise continues to take place. As such, the ration of AMP and ATP triggers the increases production of ATP in the body as the exercises happen intensively. Simultaneously, the muscle activities and the contraction lead to the production of the calcium minerals from the body. This causes the increased intracellular calcium component. The AMP signals that were produced during the exercise and the subsequent ratio of the ATP and AMP leads to a sustained signal that triggers the manufacturing of mitochondria after the exercises are over (Lohman & Roche 1988). As such, it is also understandable that the AMP signal increases the demand of the ATP which requires mitochondria to produce. As a result, the increased demand of the mitochondria needs the high production of the mitochondria by the body.
The body, therefore, triggers the molecular reorganization that enables the body to engage actively and produce as many mitochondria as possible. In fact, the intense exercises trigger the body to produce these mitochondria in preparation of the next exercising activity (Mitsiopoulos & Baumgartner 2009). This makes sure that the body has enough mitochondria to consume the glucose and fat in order to produce enough energy for the body and its functions during the exercise. Indeed, it is basically a preparation for the body to overcompensate for the use of energy during an intense exercise.
This paper sought to research on the responses of the various body molecules towards the intensity of the physical exercises conducted by a human being. Indeed, it is evident that the intensity of the human exercises determines the manner in which sugar, fats and mitochondria components react. In this case, high intensity exercises lead to increases burning of sugar levels and hence its reduction in the blood stream. As a result, the diabetes patients should take caution when engaging in these exercises because they may lead to collapse or death because the sugar fluctuation continues even after the exercises. Further, the fats are reduced drastically when HIIT is used. In addition, the molecular composition of the body responds to high intensive exercise to facilitate the production of new mitochondria. As such, low intensity exercises do not have much effect on the production of mitochondria in the body.
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