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# Fraction Lessons in Californian Montessori School Research Paper

## Fractions

The lesson began with an explanation of why we study fractions and parts of objects. The children were given pieces of paper, which they were expected to fold into half in order to understand the concept of dividing things equally. In the second chapter, students were asked to recognize the shapes that they created by dividing the papers equally. They also had to complete the dotted paper and shape-drawing exercises, as well as, dividing shapes into equal parts. I applied the publisher-recommended test after completing the lesson. The test had 10 questions with each having ten points. The Montessori materials were introduced after the test. The first lesson was presented with the aid of apples, which were distributed to all children. The concept of a ‘whole’ was introduced first. This was followed by cutting the apple into half and a story about sharing things equally. The children enjoyed learning the concepts of a half and a quarter as represented by ½ and ¼ respectively. Children were also introduced to tracing each inset on red construction paper and were asked to write the numerical concept beneath it. The assessment for this lesson involved giving each child questions with mathematical representations of 1,½

and ¼ and were asked to cut the given circle accordingly. Moreover, the teacher made unequal parts of the four basic shapes and gave them to students. The children were asked to explain why they thought the shapes were equal or unequal, as well as, the importance of sharing things equally. I also used a standard formative matrix plan and rubrics to supplement the scoring. The rubric consisted of evaluations that were based on Bloom’s Taxonomy, which focuses on knowledge, comprehension, and application. Each child’s competence in analysis, evaluation, and synthesis was assessed using a scale of 1 to 4. Only three students scored less than 60% in the state assessment. Four students scored 100%, while another 5 scored above 80% in the Montessori assessment. In conclusion, there was a significant improvement in learning with the aid of the Montessori fractions materials.

## Money Lesson

Learning about money using coins reinforces students’ knowledge about numbers. In this lesson, students were asked to use their counting skills to count coins. The Montessori money lesson had clear objectives and was age appropriate for the kindergarten group. The state recommended textbook was used to supplement the homework. The lesson was presented in a systematic manner. First, the students were introduced to the concept of one cent using red and blue number rods. Gradually, the cent numeral and its symbol was presented with the aid of number cards. The classroom was setup as a shop so that each child could practice the concept of buying things using a one-cent coin. This concept was used systematically until we reached 10 cents. We revised the lesson about fractions before introducing the concept of 25 cents. Using the fraction materials, as well as, the 25-cent and half a dollar coins, children were allowed to relate the idea of one whole to a dollar, ½ to half a dollar and ¼ to a quarter dollar. The learning outcomes were measured using a formative assessment rubric. Anecdotal evidence was measured using a scale of 1 to 4. Four students had a score of 4 in content analysis, which focuses on students’ ability to demonstrate, construct, order, and display. Two students had a sore of 4 in the content area of evaluation, which focuses on judgment, assessment, choice and forecast capabilities. Finally, four students had a score of 4 in the comprehension content, which encompasses the ability to explain, retell, and show.

## Clock Lesson

Fractions and time lessons consist of the conventional content that enables children to memorize time and counting. Children in kindergarten learn about regular and analogue clock in order to read and understand time. I began the lesson by allowing students to discuss what they saw in the clock. The rotation of the minute hand from 12 to 12 was explained using the concept of one whole. Students’ understanding was measured using scoring rubrics, whereas anecdotal evidence was measured using a scale of 1 to 4. Each child’s skills in comprehension, application, analysis, and synthesis were evaluated and the results were average. Thus, it is necessary to repeat this lesson in order to improve students’ understanding.

## California Standards

The goal of this chapter was to enable children to join and separate small groups of numbers and to record the results symbolically. A pretest indicated that only 10 students were eligible for this lesson, while the other four needed more time to improve their counting skills. The 10 students were divided into two groups and allowed to work with addition and subtraction boards. They were asked informal and random questions about the order of numbers. The learning outcomes were measured using anecdotal evidence rubrics. The results indicate that the lesson should be repeated throughout the year in order to improve students’ understanding.

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IvyPanda. 2021. "Fraction Lessons in Californian Montessori School." February 15, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/fraction-lessons-in-californian-montessori-school/.

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IvyPanda. (2021) 'Fraction Lessons in Californian Montessori School'. 15 February.