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History of Western Civilization Essay


The book the Agricola and Germania is about the history of Tacitus who was a senator and a famous Roman historian. He was the son of Cornelius Tacitus a famous man under Nero. Nero is an emperor who ruled the Roman Empire using dictatorship and tyrannical techniques. Furthermore, during the reign of Nero, the Roman Empire was fighting many social challenges like crime and perverted public taste.

In addition, degenerated Grecian tutors poisoned the education systems and inculcated false education on the Roman students. Concisely, destruction and dissolution of the state were the empire’s experience.Moreover, during the period the Roman society neglected their values, and principles.Therefore, the essay examines military, political, marriage of Agricola, and further presents the religion and welfare of the Germania people.

Military Role of Agricola

According to Tacitus, Agricola started his military career in Britain. Furthermore, Julius Agricola may have participated in quelling the Boudicca uprising of 61 A.D. He also served under Gaius Suetonius Pulinus who was the governor of the Roman Empire.

Additionally, Agricola served in Asia province in a number of positions. During the era of four emperors, Agricola helped Vespasian to become the emperor, hence appointed to lead the military of Britain when Vespasian became the emperor of the Roman Empire. Agricola conquered the regions, which are presently northern England, Scotland, and Whales.

Tacitus also states that Agricola consolidated the Roman forces and led them built a chain of forts from western to eastern parts of the country (23). In 81-83AD, he confronted the Caledonian tribes at the battle of Mons Graupius under Calgacus. Agricola later became the governor of Britannia and afterwards retired from both public service and military.

Politics and Marriage of Agricola

Agricola started his political career in Rome where he worked as a tribune. During this time he served under Gaius Suetonius Paulinus. He later returned to Britain and became the governor. As the governor, Agricola reemployed order in the military and helped in the consolidation of the rule of law.

In addition, Agricola reinforced the Roman law in areas of north Caledonia, which are Scotland and Whales in present day. After returning from Britain, Agricola married Domitian Decidiana who was a dignified woman at the age of 62. Their first son died shortly after his second child was born.

The second child was Julia Agricola who later became the wife of the famous historian Tacitus and thus, Agricola became the father in law of the historian who later wrote his biography.

Religion of the Germania

According to Tacitus, Germanic paganism dates back to the Iron Age. He describes Germania religion as an institution of interlocking associations, which consists of believers with different values and practices. In addition, Germania paganism took many forms. However, it showed some similarities that closely associated with other forms of Indo-European beliefs.

Germania worshipped a god known as Wodan or Wotan, which is commonly known as Odin among Anglo-Saxons. They worshiped in different part and built temples that used as worship sites. The most common temple is the temple of Upsala built on a place regarded as consecrated and holy by Germania. According to Tacitus, some staunch believers of Germania sometimes took effigies to battlegrounds (25).

Some of the effigies included the phallic idol. These were wooden and naturally made with human like shape. The concept is evident from the historic findings in Broddenbjerg Denmark. Germanias offered animal sacrifices and believed that the blood of male animals would purify them from any offense or wrongdoing and appease the gods.

Warfare of the Germania and Romans

Germanias, Celtics, Baltic, Scythian, and proto-Slavic individuals inhabited the land of Germania. However, these tribal alienations changed over time due to absorption of tribes and intermarriages. The region had two main divisions Germania inferior also known as, lower Germania, which represents southern parts of Europe and upper Germania also called superior Germania that covers areas like Switzerland and Alsace.

In the 12BC, the Roman army led by Augustus started conquering Germania. Legions of the legate generals and Germanics were the leaders of the Roman army. By 6 AD, the Romans had temporarily taken over most parts of Germania.

Conversely, more plans to conquer the remainder of Germania failed because “Germania armies defeated the Roman troops in the famous battle of the Teutoburg forest” (Tacitus 14). In 16 AD, Augustus declared Rhine as the boundary between the Romans and Germania.


Caius Cornelius Tacitus was a famous historian and a senator of the Roman Empire. According to the essay, Tacitus was born and raised in a noble background and received the best education any Roman student would ever receive. Tacitus was a famous writer who wrote about 16 articles. The essay discussed Germania as the people who live in areas east of the Rhine River.

The essay examines the fact that the region was home to mainly Celtic and north of Danupe regions that by then were part of the Roman Empire. Furthermore, the essay presents the battles between Roman armies and the people of Germania, the religion, marriage, and beliefs upheld by of Germania as well as their marriage ceremonies.

Additionally, the essay has also discussed the military, marriage, and political themes of Julius Agricola, who was the commander of the Roman forces and governor of Britannia. Moreover, it is important to note that Agricola and the Germania played an important role in building and developing the Roman Empire.

Works Cited

Tacitus, Caius. The Agricola and the Germania. London: Penguin, 2010.

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"History of Western Civilization." IvyPanda, 6 Oct. 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/history-of-western-civilization-2/.

1. IvyPanda. "History of Western Civilization." October 6, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/history-of-western-civilization-2/.


IvyPanda. "History of Western Civilization." October 6, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/history-of-western-civilization-2/.


IvyPanda. 2019. "History of Western Civilization." October 6, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/history-of-western-civilization-2/.


IvyPanda. (2019) 'History of Western Civilization'. 6 October.

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