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Scholars and analysts argue that the appropriateness of design used cannot be fully evaluated. However, to some extent, analysts and researchers can determine if the design is appropriate to a particular study or not. To evaluate the appropriateness of the design used in this paper, we will compare it to similar research.
In addition to this, I will analyze the design used by the researches in the respective studies and determine why they used the particular design. Researchers use various designs for different reasons. The reason for using a particular design in a research will determine how appropriate the design is.
In a similar research, Mark et al (2009) used the concept of subject design. The main reason for using this design was to increase the level of accuracy in his paper. However, the design employed by Mark et al (2009) is expensive since it requires the control group to be subjected to all the treatments.
In this paper, I have used between subjects. The main reason for using this method is to reduce the expenses involved in the experiment. Moreover, using this design will ensure that the carry over effect does not affect the results of the experiment.
The question of how appropriate related research is dependent on the research topic. Literature review must align with the research topic in order to be considered appropriate. In article, I derived the literature review from research with similar concepts to the research about to be conducted.
The literature provides clearly insight into the topic under research. Moreover, it acts as a source of guidance when carrying out the actual research. All the variables chosen and used in this research are important especially when analyzing the research results and when concluding the research process.
Subjects or Participants
Using a simple sample-calculator, students can determine accurately the sample size to use in a research. However, the sample calculators do not take a number of variables into consideration. These variables may affect the sample size used in research.
Variables such as the budgetary allocation and willingness of the participants are very important in research process. In this research, the budgetary constraints coupled with the willingness of the participants makes choosing a large sample difficult.
Therefore, in order to get viable results while maintaining the integrity of the research, I used the minimum acceptable statistical sample size of 40. This sample size will ensure that I can analyze the results without difficulty.
Moreover, it will ensure that the results obtained are more accurate since the participants chosen are serious. Susan (2003) chose to use a population that she is within her ability to analyze. She took into account the budget and time factor when choosing the population.
The selection process in this research is critical to the success of the success of the research. Only willing and serious participants are selected to ensure that the research is accurate. In research conducted by Robert (1980), he offered the students an incentive of an extra credit to ensure that they were serious with the experiment.
The research questions in this paper are designed to ensure that the research answers the question in the research topic. The appropriateness of the questions can be determined by simple logics. If the questions are appropriate then in the long run they assist concluding the research topic. Moreover, the research questions align with the research topic if they are relevant.
Measures taken in this research process act as a means of enhancing the validity of the data obtained. For example, checking the character of the participants will ensure that only serious participants get involved in the research. Constructing simple questionnaires enhance the understanding of the subjects.
The research discourages leading to ensure that the participants give answers according to their own understanding of the question. All the questions in the questionnaire will be brief so that the subjects do not lose interest in the research process.
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All the questions in the questionnaires will be non-ambiguous to ensure that answers are not diverse. The test will contain multiple questions for the purpose of testing some variables in the research. Therefore, the measures taken in this research are appropriate since they facilitate the research process.
The viability of these measures can be traced back to the experiment carried out by Mark et al. (2009). In their experiment, the authors employed several measures to ensure that their research was a success. The use of multiple questions to measure the speed, accuracy and proficiency is an idea borrowed from the research done by Mark et al.
The other measures used in this paper are derived from logical thinking. For instance, setting ambiguous questions would lead to a variety of answers and this would make the process of analyzing the data difficult. Therefore, to combat such a problem boundaries need to be set and this is done by providing closed ended questions that require definite answers.
All the material used in this research are necessary and contribute to the success of the research. Calculators are basic requirements since the research tests how the use of calculators affects students in the fashion merchandising industry.
Pencils and erasers are also necessary since all the answers in the questionnaires need to be recorded. Moreover, one of the groups uses only paper and pencils to solve the mathematical problems.
All the participants will be exposed to a classroom setting. Prior to this activity, all the participants will be assigned with specific tests and separated into the control group and the experimental group. The experimental group will be given calculators to assist them in completing the arithmetic test.
Participants will be informed to treat the test as any other test. Each of the groups will have thirty minutes to complete their test. Both the groups must complete the test under the watch of a supervisor to avoid bias that may arise if the students were left alone. The supervisors will record time taken by each student to complete the test.
The procedure used above will ensure that the research meets its objectives. By separating the students into two groups, the process will ensure that the students cannot borrow calculators from the other group.
A classroom setting provides the supervisors with an easy time to monitor the subjects. Equal time assignment to both groups will assist in measuring the speed while supervision will ensure that the chances of cheating are minimized.
Data analysis in this paper involves use of statistical packages. The use of SPSS will simplify the general process of analyzing data. This is because, the statistical packages require the raw data to be entered appropriately and the computer can perform analysis automatically once instructions are given.
Graphical presentations derived from SPSS are useful when presenting the results of the research. The use of ANOVA will enable the researcher to perform comparisons between the different sets of data obtained. Comparisons may be done between the control group and the experimental.
Various factors may limit the internal validity of this research. To begin with, the research entails convincing students to do “exams”. Most students are scared by the thought of exams. Therefore, even with the idea of getting incentive, the students may not perform to their level best. Another factor that may limit the validity of the research is the selection process.
The research methods used clearly outline that the subjects are must be serious. However, seriousness is a subjective element and measuring the degree of seriousness is hard. Therefore, subjects’ seriousness is measured using the judgment of the researcher. The researcher is not necessarily right when it comes to measuring an abstract construct like seriousness. This factor may limit the internal validity of the research.
Other Limiting factors that exist in this field of research include matters such as financial constraints. Financial constraints limit the ability of researchers to perform all the required tests. Moreover, it determines the sample size and he time a researcher will spend in the field.
Therefore, financial matters are important in research process. Time is another factor that limits researchers from coming up with comprehensive foolproof research methods, design and questions. Research is usually carried out under limited time. Therefore, the researcher may miss some crucial points while formulating the research due to lack of sufficient time.
Mark, B., Susan, M., and Davison, K. (2009). An Investigation of Calculator Use on Employment Tests of Mathematical Ability: Effects on Reliability, Validity, Test Scores, and Speed of Completion. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69(2), 322-350.
Roberts, D. M. (1980). The Impact of Electronic Calculators on Educational Performance. Review of Educational Research, 50(1), 71-98.
Susan, B. (2003). What Does the Research Say about Achievement of Students Who Use Calculator Technologies and Those Who Do Not? Department of Mathematics, 2(1), 1‑10.